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Sectionalism, Nationalism and the Age of Jackson

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Mark Chambers

on 7 November 2017

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Transcript of Sectionalism, Nationalism and the Age of Jackson

Industrial Revolution
Interchangeable parts -> mass production
Industrial Revolution changes everything
Samuel Slater memorizes plans (Britain outlawed leaving the country with blueprints)
New England industrializes - Lowell, MA
Cotton gin promotes dominant agriculture in the South - cotton is king
Nationalism Challenged
The Age of Jackson
1824 election - Jackson wins popular vote but not enough electoral votes
Decision goes to the House - Henry Clay convinces members to elect Adams
Clay then appointed secretary of state - "Corrupt Bargain"
Jackson forms Democratic-Republican Party
1828 Jackson wins in landslide
"Spoils System" - Jackson replaces appointees from Adams with his own personal friends
Indian Removal Act
5 Civilized Tribes held Southern lands - planters wanted this land
Indian Removal Act - relocated natives to "their own lands" to maintain their way of life
Trail of Tears - forced removal of Cherokee Indians from Georgia AFTER they had been recognized as a legitimate nation and given their native lands.
Enacted by Jackson - enforced by President Van Buren
States' Rights and the National Bank
Calhoun, Jackson's VP, rallied against the 1828 tariff - "Tariff of Abominations"
Calhoun (SC) wished to nullify the tariff - sovereign states had that right he urged
1832 - another tariff passed; South Carolina nullified the act
Jackson threatens to hang Calhoun and gets Congress to pass the Force Bill - allows federal troops into SC to enforce the tariff
Clay proposes a gradual tariff to ease the tension
Sectionalism, Nationalism and the Age of Jackson
Same number of free and slaves states (Illinois -> Missouri?)
House bill asks Missouri to gradually free its slaves
The issue leads to intense debate
Jefferson - "We have the wolf by the ears and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go."
Missouri Compromise
Missouri comes in as a slave state
Maine as a free state
Louisiana Territory split at 36* 30'
North of line free, south slave
including Missouri
The National Bank
Jackson disliked, and distrusted the National Bank (and most all banks)
It's recharter became a campaign issue - Clay hoped to use it against Jackson - that backfired
Jackson convinced everyday people of the "evils" of the bank
Jackson wanted the $ deposited into "pet banks" - state banks loyal to Jackson
Biddle, BUS president, decided to call in all loans - blame pushed to Jackson
When confronted, Jackson says they've got the wrong man - "Go talk to Biddle."
BUS in ruins - closes 5 years later
Jackson supporters see his actions as despotic and form the Whig party - name taken from British party looking to limit royal power
The American System -
protective tariff
bring back the National bank
transportation and internal improvements
Protective tariff accepted by the North, resented by the South and West
Why? cost of goods
Full transcript