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The Process

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Robert Griffin

on 16 June 2015

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Transcript of The Process

Strongly structured sequential activities with clear outputs
Each Phase is signed off by customers
Each phase is a checkpoint. Go / no go decision.
Provides control over time and cost for the Project Manager
Comprehensive documentation
Easy/cheap to make changes to system during first few phases
Waterfall Model : Advantages
Evaluation with users or with peers, e.g. prototypes
Technical feasibility: some not possible
Quality thresholds: Usability goals lead to usability criteria set early on and check regularly
safety: how safe?
utility: which functions are superfluous?
effectiveness: appropriate support? task coverage, information available
efficiency: performance measurements
4. How do you choose among
Who are the users?

What are ‘needs’?

Where do alternatives come from?

How do you choose among alternatives?
B. Some practical issues
Member of the design team
Full time: constant input, but lose touch with users
Part time: patchy input, and very stressful
Short term: inconsistent across project life
Long term: consistent, but lose touch with users

Newsletters and other dissemination devices
Reach wider selection of users
Need communication both ways

Combination of these approaches
2. Degrees of user involvement
A. What is involved in Interaction Design?
Importance of involving users
Degrees of user involvement
What is a user-centered approach?
Four basic activities (requirements, alternatives, prototypes, evaluation)

B. Some practical issues
Who are the users?
What are ‘needs’?
Where do alternatives come from?
How do you choose among alternatives?

C. Lifecycle Models
Reported by Deborah Mayhew
Important features:
Holistic view of usability engineering
Provides links to software engineering approaches, e.g. OOSE
Stages of identifying requirements, designing, evaluating, prototyping
Can be scaled down for small projects
Uses a style guide to capture a set of usability goals
3.Usability engineering lifecycle model
Lots of proposals to improve situation
Mainly try to add things like prototyping, user evaluation, feedback loops
In reality no one correct answer and you as the Project manager get to “carry the can”
You must make an informed decision based on the evidence
We will use the Usability Engineering lifecycle model as a starting point and decide which elements to focus on, downplay or even omit.
The Reality
Very rigid and inflexible

Often the requirements are not clear at the beginning

No visible system till near end of lifecycle

No Testing done till near end of lifecycle

Volumes of Documentation
Waterfall Model : Disadvantages
Traditional ‘waterfall’ lifecycle
Systematic and Sequential Approach to developing a system

It has Defined Phases (e.g. Requirements, Design, Implementation, Testing, Maintenance) each has required deliverables eg. Documentation

Very rigid, original model indicated that phases should not be skipped
2. The Traditional Waterfall Lifecycle
Show how activities are related to each other
Lifecycle models are:
management tools
simplified versions of reality
Many lifecycle models exist, for example:
from software engineering: waterfall, spiral, JAD (Joint Application Development)/RAD (Rapid Application Development), agile
from HCI: Star, usability engineering
Different Models are used for different types of system
C. Lifecycle models
Humans stick to what they know works
But considering alternatives is important to ‘break out of the box’
Designers are trained to consider alternatives, software people generally are not
How do you generate alternatives?
‘Flair and creativity’: research and synthesis
Seek inspiration: look at similar products or look at very different products
3. Where do alternatives
come from?
Not as obvious as you think:
those who interact directly with the product
those who manage direct users
those who receive output from the product
those who make the purchasing decision
those who use competitor’s products

Three categories of user (Eason, 1987):
primary: frequent hands-on
secondary: occasional or via someone else
tertiary: affected by its introduction, or will influence its purchase
1. Who are the users/stakeholders?
User-centred approach is based on:
Early focus on users and tasks: directly studying cognitive, behavioural & attitudinal characteristics
Empirical measurement: users’ reactions and performance to scenarios, manuals, simulations & prototypes are observed, recorded and analysed
Iterative design: when problems are found in user testing, fix them and carry out more tests
3. What is a user-centred approach?
Expectation management
Realistic expectations
No surprises, no disappointments
Timely training
Communication, but no hype
Make the users active stakeholders
More likely to forgive or accept problems
Can make a big difference to acceptance and success of product
1. Importance of involving users
It is a process:
a goal-directed problem solving activity informed by intended use, target domain, materials, cost and feasibility
a creative activity (Process shouldn’t destroy creativity)
a decision-making activity to balance trade-offs

It is a representation:
a plan for development
a set of alternatives and successive elaborations
A. What is involved in Interaction Design?
The process of interaction design
Four basic activities in the design process
Identify needs and establish requirements
Design potential solutions ((re)-design)
Choose between alternatives (evaluate)
Build the artefact

User-centered design rests on three principles
Early focus on users and tasks
Empirical measurement using quantifiable & measurable usability criteria
Iterative design

Lifecycle models show how these are related
Users rarely know what is possible
Users can’t tell you what they ‘need’ to help them achieve their goals
Instead, look at existing tasks:
their context
what information do they require?
who collaborates to achieve the task?
why is the task achieved the way it is?
Envisioned tasks:
can be rooted in existing behaviour
can be described as future scenarios
2. What are ‘needs’?
Humans vary in many dimensions:
size of hands may affect the size and positioning of input buttons
motor abilities may affect the suitability of certain input and output devices
height if designing a physical kiosk
strength - a child’s toy requires little strength to operate, but greater strength to change batteries
disabilities(e.g. sight, hearing, dexterity)
What are the users’ capabilities?
There are four basic activities in Interaction Design:

Identifying needs and establishing requirements

Developing alternative designs

Building interactive versions of the designs i.e. prototypes

Evaluating designs
4. Four basic activities
• Suppliers
• Local shop owners
Managers and owners
Check-out operators
Who are the stakeholders?
Who are the stakeholders in IADT?
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