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Transcript of Articles
Review of rules
are used in front of a singular noun.
They mean "one."
Rules # 1 to 3:
1. If a singular noun is
modified by an adjective,
in front of the adjective.
is used in front of words
that begin with a consonant.
is used in front
of words that begin with
the vowels a, e, i, and o.
Rules # 4 to 5:
For words that begin with the letter u:
is used if the u is a vowel sound.
is used if the u is a consonant sound.
Rules # 6 to 7:
For words that begin with the letter h:
is used if the h is silent.
is used if the h is pronounced.
count nouns vs. noncount nouns
can be counted with numbers cannot be counted with numbers
have plural endings do not have plural endings
parts of a group of things a whole group of things / abstractions, ideas or concepts
Common noncount nouns
nouns that can be both count and noncount
Rules # 8 to 9:
a/an with count and noncount nouns
8. A count noun can be preceded by
in the singular
9. A noncount noun is not immediately preceded by a/an
Rules # 10 to 12:
with count and noncount nouns
is used in front of singular count nouns (particular people, places, or things).
is NOT used with titled names.
Did you feed
Ø Mr. Smith lives across the street.
Ø President Carter was no reelected.
is used in front of plural count nouns
Did you feed
is used in front of a noncount nouns when the noun describes some thing in particular, but
is not used in front of a noncount noun when the noun describes some thing in general.
bowl is ripe. (particular)
Ø Fruit can be placed in a bowl. (general)
time to learn is now. (particular)
Ø Time is short. (general)
Rules # 13 to 15:
is used to modify a noun that describes something in particular, or when the speaker and the listener are thinking about the same specific person(s) or thing(s). The indefinite article
modifies a noun that describes a generality.
pencil on that desk is Jim's. (particular)
pencil is used for writing. (general)
automobile should not be left unlocked. (general)
I don't have
14. A speaker uses
when s/he mentions
a noun the second time.
I had a banana and an apple.
banana to Mary.
I drank some coffee and some milk.
coffee was hot.
Rules # 16 to 21:
Rules 22 to 27:
Practice 1 of 4
Practice 2 of 4
is a DEFINITE ARTICLE whereas
are INDEFINITE ARTICLES.
always precedes an adjective in the superlative degree.
most intelligent student.
Practice 3 of 4
Practice 4 of 4
and names of points on the globe, geographic areas, continents, countries and cities
is used with points on the globe.
is used with the names of geographic areas.
18. A zero article (Ø) occurs with the names of continents.
Ø North America, Ø Africa, Ø Asia, Ø Europe
occurs with names of countries when the name refers to a political union.
the United States, the Soviet Union
20. A zero article (Ø) usually occurs with
the names of countries (exception: The Netherlands).
Ø Canada, Ø England, Ø China
21. A zero article (Ø) occurs with the names of cities
(exception: the Hague).
Ø Toronto, Ø Paris, Ø Sydney
accompanies the names of rivers, oceans, and seas.
the Nile, the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea
23. A zero article (Ø) occurs with the names of lakes and bays
(exception: the Bay of Biscay).
Ø Lake Superior, Ø Hudson Bay
appears with groups of lakes.
the Great Lakes
accompanies the names of ranges of mountains.
26. A zero article (Ø) occurs with the name of
a single mountain (exception: the Matterhorn).
Ø Mount Everest, Ø Mount Rushmore
precedes the name of an archipelago, a desert, a forest, a gulf, or a peninsula.