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Human Resource Policies

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safa Mousa Sawadha

on 5 January 2014

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Transcript of Human Resource Policies

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
*Define initial selection and identify the most useful methods.
*Define substantive selection and identify the most useful methods.
*Define contingent selection and contrast the arguments for and against drug testing.
*Compare the four main types of training.
*Contrast formal and informal training methods.
*Contrast on-the-job and off-the-job training.
*Describe the purpose of performance evaluation and list the methods by which it can be done.
*Show how managers can improve performance evaluations.
*Describe how organizations can manage work-family conflicts.
*Show how a global context affects human resource management.

What About Ethics Training?
Argument against
Personal values and value systems are fixed at an early age

Step 3
Thank u all
presented by :

Safa Sawadha
Asma maaitah
Dania hayajneh
isra'a Adnan Oran
Zienab Al-hnifat
mohammad Qwaider
Tha'er khalaf

Organizational behavior
(Ch17 )

Human Resource Policies
and Practices

Chapter Learning Objectives
The Selection Process
The most important HR decision is whom to hire

ةmodel of selection process in organizations
*Initial selection
*Substantive selection
*Contingent selection
Initial Selection

Applicants who don’t meet basic requirements are rejected.

Substantive Selection

Applicants who meet basic requirements, but are less qualified than others, are rejected.

Contingent Selection

Applicants who are among best qualified, but who fail contingent selection, are rejected.

The most important HR decision is whom to hire

Application job offer
Stage 1: Initial Selection
Initial selection devices are used to determine if basic qualifications for the job are met .
Devices include:

* Application Forms

* Background Checks

*Good initial screen
* Must be careful about questions asked – legal issues

*Most employers want reference information, but few give it out – litigation worries .

*Letters of recommendation are of marginal worth

*May use criminal record or credit report checks

Stage 2: Substantive Selection
These devices are the heart of the selection process

*Written Tests

*Performance-Simulation Tests

*Testing applicants for: intelligence or cognitive ability, personality, integrity, and interests

*Intelligence tests are the best predictor across all jobs
*Based on job-related performance requirements

*Work Sample Tests :
Creating a miniature replica of a job to evaluate the performance abilities of job candidates

*Assessment Centers :
A set of performance-simulation tests designed to evaluate a candidate’s managerial potential

Another Substantive Selection Device
Interviews :
* Are the most frequently used selection tool
*Carry a great deal of weight in the selection process
*Can be biased toward those who “interview well”

Types of Interviews

Unstructured (randomly chosen questions)
Most common, least predictive, and prone to bias

Structured (standardized sets of questions)
More predictive of job success; less chance for bias

Behavioral structured (asking how specific problems were handled in the past)
Past behaviors may be good predictors of future behavior

Interviews most often used to determine organization-individual fit

Stage 3: Contingent Selection
final check before hiring
Drug testing
*Controversial: perceived to be unfair or invasive
*Supreme Court ruled that this is not an invasion of rights
*Expensive but accurate
*Alcohol not generally tested for

Training and Development Programs
Types of Training

1-Basic Literacy Skills

2-Technical Skills

3-Interpersonal Skills

4-Problem-Solving Skills

One half of U.S. high school graduates do not have the basic skills necessary for work

Focus of most training, especially given the
pace of technological change

Skills like effective listening, communication, and teamwork

Help sharpen logic and reasoning, and provide helpful decision-making techniques

*Values can be learned and changed

*Training helps employees recognize ethical dilemmas and issues.

*Training reaffirms the organization’s expectation that members will act ethically

Argument for

Training Methods
3-On-the-Job (OJT)
5- E-Training (computer-based)

Planned in advance with a structured format

-Unstructured, unplanned, and easily adaptable
-70% of all current training is of this type

Classroom lectures, videotapes, seminars, self-study courses, Internet-based courses, role-plays, and case studies .

-Includes job rotation, apprenticeships, understudy assignments, and formal mentoring programs.

-May be disruptive to the workplace
Flexible but expensive and not proven to work

Individualized Training and Learning Styles
Learning styles differ – so should training method

Give them books and reading materials to review
Let them observe experts modeling the proper behaviors
Provide lectures or audiotapes
Let these learners try out the new skills in a safe experimental environment

Learning styles:
The styles are not mutually exclusive – employees can learn from multiple styles

Evaluating Training Effectiveness
Many factors determine training effectiveness:

-Training method used

-Individual motivation
-Trainee personality: those with internal locus of control, high conscientiousness, high cognitive ability, and high self-efficacy learn best

-Training climate: ability to apply the learning to the job

Performance Evaluation
Evaluation affects performance level

Purposes of Performance Evaluation:
Provides input to general human resource decisions
-Identifies skill training and development needs
-Provides performance feedback to employees
-Supplies the basis for reward allocation decisions

For OB specialists: the key purposes of performance
evaluation are the last two - a mechanism for
feedback and reward allocation


Merit pay increases and other rewards

What Do We Evaluate?
Individual Task Outcomes

Weak because they don’t reflect productivity;
often used, these include attitudes, confidence, and looking busy

These are the metrics that directly result from employee effort
such as sales, turnover, or quality

More and more companies are focusing on behavior in place of production.
The three main areas they concentrate on are : 1-Task Performance
3-Counter productivity




Who Should Do the Evaluating?
Methods of Performance Evaluation
Written Essay

Critical Incidents

A narrative describing an employee’s strengths, weaknesses past performances, potential, and suggestions for improvement

Evaluating the behaviors that are key in making the
difference between executing a job effectively and
executing it ineffectively

More Methods of Performance Evaluation
Graphic Rating Scales;
An evaluation method in which the evaluator rates performance factors on an incremental scale

Another Performance Evaluation Method
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)

Scales that combine major elements from the critical incident and graphic rating scale approaches: The appraiser rates the employees based on items along a continuum, but the points are examples of actual behavior on a given job rather than general descriptions or traits.

Even More Evaluation Methods
Forced Comparisons

- Evaluating one individual’s performance relative to the performance of another individual or others

- Who is “better,” A or B?

Group Order Ranking

Individual Ranking

-An evaluation method that places employees into a particular classification such as quartiles

-10% are A’s, 20% B’s, 40% C’s, 20% D’s, and 10% F’s
-An evaluation method that rank-orders employees from best to worst

- Mary is #1, Juan is #2, Liu is #3…

Suggestions for Improving Evaluations
-Use multiple evaluators to overcome rater biases
*Halo and leniency errors

-Evaluate selectively based on evaluator competence

-Train evaluators to improve rater accuracy

-Provide employees with due process

-Individuals are provided with adequate notice of performance expectations

-All relevant evidence of a violation is aired in a fair hearing, with the
individual given an opportunity to respond

-Final decision is based on the evidence and is free of bias

Providing Performance Feedback
Why Managers Are Reluctant to Give Feedback

Solutions to Improving Feedback

*They are uncomfortable discussing performance weaknesses directly with employees.

*Employees tend to become defensive.

*Employees tend to have an inflated
assessment of their own performance
Train managers on how to give effective feedback

Use performance review as a counseling activity rather than as a judgment process

Managing Diversity: Work-Life Conflicts
Since the 1980s the line between work
and personal life has begun to blur

Solutions include:
A- Flexible scheduling and benefits

B-On-site personal services (like dry cleaning or a gym)

Stress is caused not by time constraints but by the psychological incursion of work into the family domain and vice versa

Some like greater integration of work and family;
others need greater separation

Global Implications

Performance Evaluation

-Practices differ by nation: global policies need to be modified to fit within local customs

-Use of educational qualifications may be universal

Not emphasized or considered appropriate in many cultures due
to differences in:

-Individualism versus collectivism
-A person’s relationship to the environment
-Time orientation (long- or short-term)
-Focus on responsibility

Summary and Managerial Implications
Selection Practices

Training and Development Programs

Performance Evaluation

Proper selection devices increase likelihood of hiring the right person for the position

Can be used to improve employee skills
Increase employee self-efficacy

*A major goal is to assess an individual’s performance accurately as
a basis for reward allocation decisions

*Should be based on behavioral, results-oriented criteria; take a long-term view; and allow employees input into the process

Designed by
Safa Mousa Al-sawadha
Full transcript