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Transcript of Genetics
-Every species has a different amount of genes.
-A human with 46 chromosomes and all together, in one cell, 6 Billion individual letters.
-DNA found only in nucleus
-Your DNA typed out would take up about 6 gigabytes of memory on a computer
-99% of our DNA sequence is the same as other humans
-DNA decays over time!
-Everyone's DNA is different (has a different sequence of the base pairs) it can be used to identify people as it is unique to you.
What is Genetics?
Genetics is the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
What can genetics be used for?
Plants are specifically refereed to as GM Plants of genetically modified plants and the same goes for crop (GM Crops).
Mapping The Genome
Mapping the human genome and the genome of other animals
Dolly the sheep!
Also tried on cats.
Growing Human Body Parts
-Growing of animals and organism to have human parts.
-Could lead to farms where animals are grown and killed for organs.
How Can Genetics Be Used In
Developing countries cannot use the technology the same way as we do because they cannot afford it.
Where is the line?
What do you think genetics is?
By Mario Reckl
"Leave the atom alone."
E. Y. Harburg
“DNA is like a computer program but far, far more advanced than any software ever created.”
Animals- used for food, cure diseases, farm use
Ex. One of you stole the last candy cane, but left behind a single skin cell.
All you need now is to extract the DNA and be the use of restriction enzyme, duplicate that DNA into many strands, add dye-labeled dideoxynucleotieds to it, put it in a gel(electrophoresis). Match it up and you have the thief.
Growing of human body parts
-Need a single cell or hair follicle.
The problem is that this leads to a
lack of diversity among species.
Instead of breeding we are duplicating the same one over and over. It may have the same/similar traits. But is it the same animal?
Physical (allergies, cancer other?)
Ecological problems-(new species or lack of biodiversity
-Human Genome Project
which is genetically modified,and is alive, is know as a GMO or genetically modified organism.
A large project know as the Human Genome Project. This tried to sequence all of the bases of the human genome all 6 Billion of them.
Barcoding every living thing is now happening at the University of Guelph. Canadian Center for DNA Barcoding at the the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario
-From this comes the idea that we could grow farms of animals with human body parts which can be slaughtered such as cows for the use of thier organs. But at what point are you human?
They are not able to grow their own food using genetic technology, they are not able to really use it for forensics, only the rich are able to.
Is it fair if we can use this technology in the developing world and they cannot? genetic modification or food?
How Does Canada Use Genetics?
"Some estimates peg as many as 30,000 different products on [Canadian] grocery store shelves as 'modified'."
"Health Canada has taken the position that GM foods are just as safe as conventional foods."
"The fear is that consumers will see the labels as a warning and avoid these foods, and that food processors will reformulate their products to avoid GM foods rather than place labels. " (CBC)
Canada grew about 18.8 million acres of genetically modified corps in 2008. In 2012 Canada planted 6% of the global acres of GM crops.
77% of the world's GM crops are planted in the U.S.(43%), Brazil (19%) and Argentina (15%).
-1 change in DNA, can alter the whole sequence!
-It takes about eight hours for one of your cells to completely copy its DNA.
-If you were to stretch out the DNA from those 46 chromosomes in one cell and lay it end to end, it would be over 2 yards in length.
-Bananas: 22 chromosomes in total
-Garden strawberries: 56 chromosomes in total
"The secret of genome: the clue for life perfection or wreck of existence’s uniqueness."
Genetic engineering is to traditional crossbreeding what the nuclear bomb was to the sword. — Andrew Kimbrell
You are the solution!
We are the solution!
We have to test, find out the pros and cons, side effects? We don't know, but we need to!
To solve this issue we have to test. But to test we have to use live animals and human. The problem is is that right? after we can ethically figure out what it right we can solve the problem.
Dolly the sheep!
Also has been tried on cats.
Where is the line?
DNA = Deoxyribonucleic Acid
The Central Dogma
-DNA codes the 20 amino acids
Human Genome project