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EFL and Inclusion (long)
Transcript of EFL and Inclusion (long)
I was worried. Unlike their peers, I saw that these students did not benefit from EFL methodology. I tried to do my best, but difficulties arose when developing the individual plans. On the other hand, I felt uncomfortable with these policies. They did not allow me do my job the way it supposed to be. In my opinion, the procedures for addressing significant accommodations contradicted what I learned in college.
I had a big problem...So, I started to research in two directions: my field of specialty and the educative system. The Problem So, I set out my goals Objectives To analyze the EFL instructional strategies used to address diversity in the I and II cycles in consonance with the inclusive curriculum being implemented in the target public school.
1.To determine the EFL teacher’s instructional strategies for addressing diversity in the inclusive classroom
2.To examine the attitude of the EFL teachers towards the inclusive curriculum in their classrooms
3.To determine teachers’ awareness of an inclusive curriculum and the way they implement it with their students
4.To examine the learning experience of the students in the context of the inclusive curriculum Communicative Language Teaching CLT Communicative competence Interaction Individual characteristics Multisensory learning mime - listen - see Previous knowledge equity, respect, collaboration, participation, tolerance, friendship, joy, cooperation, self confidence, autonomy, etc. communicative competence functional language for meaningful purposes unrehearsed contexts genuine interaction active participants learner centered Krashen's Affective Filter Hypothesis Krashen's Comprehensible Input Hypotheses Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation favors long-term retention, self-esteem, and autonomy Vygotsky ZPD: support from teacher and more competent peers Bruner's Scaffolding mediation mechanisms
attend to important details
directs attention to relevant information
helps notice Social experience Pragmatics When
With whom values
motivations How language is used according to the situational context. Group work promotes collaboration
lowers the affective filter
launches independency Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory We are not the same.
Pedagogy that appeals to all intelligences
Pedagogy that addresses the whole person
Language embeded in activities that adress the intelligences Ausubel's meaningful learning
rote learning Subsumption Background experience material enters the brain material interacts with
pre-established entities material becomes
meaningful Culture language and culture
depart from L1 cultures
build positive attitudes to other's culture
cultural awareness favors positive attitudes toward L2
intercultural communication Values First, let's examine my field of specialty... Now, let's check the context... Which barriers in the system diminish the quality of the education students with barriers to learning and participation receive in the PES classrooms? As it turns out, my problem has its roots in the integrationist approach... because...
Actions still center their attention on individualized efforts to support "students who fail to fit into the available education services (curriculum adaptations, specialized support, etc) rather than modifying those aspects of the educational and learning context that limit participation and learning for all" (Blanco, 2008)
Although integration has broadened the opportunities for students with barriers to learning and participation, it has not influenced the educative system as a whole. On the contrary, still persist "parallel structures and educational approaches for different groups of learners" (Blanco, 2000). Inclusion is a process for addressing and responding to diversity.
aims at increasing the learners participation and reducing exclusion.
covers all children.
places a responsibility upon the educative system to educate all children.
is concerned with the whole person.
Children with and without disabilities learn together in same classrooms.
Children with any kind of impairment receive additional support, but following the regular curriculum, not a different one.
involves changes and modifications in contents, approaches, structure and strategies. Quality education Students reach their fullest cognitive, emotional and creative potential in the process of learning.
Students gain self-esteem The inclusive curriculum is a common framework of activities and objectives that reflects the diversity in all aspects.
impacts contents, teaching and learning methods, assessment, and resources.
stimulates a child friendly environment.
considers that not all students are at some particular point in learning.
is relevant and pertinent. Differentiation Teachers have to develop classroom routines that attend to, rather than ignore learner variance in readiness, interest, and learning profile.
It impacts contents, teaching methods, activities, materials, and assessment.
Readiness: teaching within students' ZPD
Interest: interest based instruction, which is linked to motivation
Learning profile: students' preferred mode of learning (learning style, intelligence, gender, and culture Teachers should find out... what students already know and can do,
what interests them,
what related experiences they have had,
what learning styles work best for them Denial after
1948 Acceptance Understanding 80's
1994... knowledge A legal frame began to articulate from international declarations and conventions.
All these documents observed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
Integration movement emerged It gathers updated views on special education and a shift towards inclusion from a perspective more likely to charity and benevolence
people with special learning needs filled special education institutions as segregated students
society did not see a real change in education. before
1948 You see, societies worldwide have always changed their approach to educating people with cognitive and physical disadvantages.
UNESCO (2005) identifies four phases or stages of the process. Why did the integration approach failed? So, are we living the inclusive approach right now? Not quite...
you see.. Oh yeah? How is
that possible? Through the inclusive
curriculum! One moment, that sounds complicated... But that's our specialty! EFL TEACHERS Not so fast..!
Remember this piece of the puzzle? children with special educational needs Literature tells that this category of diversity has been subject of unequal learning situations for many years now! (They are in disadvantage) New term: students with barriers to learning and participation ...to direct the attention to removing those aspects of the system that impede these students access to quality education. Barriers to learning and participation These barriers exist because... PES still answers to the integration approach! Law 7600 (1996) Igualdad de Oportunidades para personas con Discapacidad
MEP's Políticas, Normativa y Procedimientos para el Acceso a la Educación de los Estudiantes con Necesidades Especiales (1997)
Addendum to Circular DVM-DR-154-03 29-03-05 "Lineamientos para el Trámite, Aprobación, Aplicación y Seguimiento de las Adecuaciones Curriculares Significativas" unclear view of diversity
unclear view of inclusion
negative attitudes toward inclusion
lack of commitment to inclusive values
bad judgements about students' capacities (self fulfilling prophesy)
fragmented or contradictory policies
unsuitable curriculum The main support for students with barriers to learning and participation comes in the form of curricular accommodations... curricular
accommodations access accommodations Significant accommodations Non-significant accommodations Official policies and regulations behind special accommodations Oh my God!
Someone has to do something! RELAX! WE ALREADY HAVE THE LEGAL FRAME TO SUPPORT INCLUSION! Law 7600 (1996) Igualdad de oportunidades para personas con Discapacidad
Law 8661 (2008) Convención Sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad
Additional help from...
CENAREC, created in 2002
Document "Centro Educativo de Calidad como eje de la educación Costarricense" (2008) by Consejo Superior de Educación
MEP's Comisión de Apoyo a la Educación Inclusiva pilot plan "Centros Educativos de Calidad con Orientación Inclusiva" Article 24 States Parties shall ensure an inclusive education
system at all levels and lifelong learning directed to:
(a) The full development of human potential and sense of dignity and self-worth, and the strengthening of respect for human rights, fundamental freedoms and human diversity;
(b) The development by persons with disabilities of their personality, talents and creativity, as well as their mental and physical abilities, to their fullest potential;
(c) Enabling persons with disabilities to participate effectively in a free society.
(United Nations, 2006. p 16) "We have two approaches going on
at the same time...
Integration and Inclusion" I'm not sure about this. Can you prove what you're saying? Well, let's see what's going on
in the field... Methodology I knew exactly what to do...
I just needed to analyze... I also wanted to be able to... 1. explore and understand a social problem
2. have an active role as a participant How teachers put into practice those EFL principles of inclusion by means of the strategic dynamics they carry out in the classroom in order to address the student’s uniqueness within the all inclusive concept of diversity.
Where? Nuevo Horizonte Elementary School in Heredia.
When? During the second and third trimesters of 2012
With whom? Two groups from I cycle and two groups from II cycle and their English teachers.
Who else? EFL teachers in the province of Heredia, who attended the workshop “Adecuaciones curriculares para docentes de Inglés en Servicio” offered by MEP to elementary and high school teachers between March 14th and April 25th, 2011, under the auspices of CONARE-MEP as part of the Costa Rica Multilingüe effort. Qualitative: “a means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem” (Cresswell, 2009, p. 4). The researcher plays an active role in the investigation, as a participant (Hernández et al, 2006). 3. analyze the work of the EFL teacher in terms of addressing diversity within an integration context, such a public school
4. probe a hypothesis and pinpoint barriers in the system Case study: “investigates a contemporary phenomenon in depth and within its real context, especially when the boundaries between the phenomenon and context are not clearly evident” (Yin, 2009, p. 18). 5. describe what was going on in the classrooms according to the perceptions of the participants, including the researcher herself. Descriptive: it reveals “the nature of certain situations, settings, processes, relationships, systems, or people” (Leedy & Ormrod , 2010, p. 136) and it describes the events according to the participants’ perception (McMillan & Schumacher 2005, p. 402). 6. construct a reality through the constructivist worldview of inclusion, by means of interacting with the participants in the setting in which the problem happened and interpreting the meaning they gave to the problem The worldviews of the participants and the researcher come involved in the construction of a reality, relative to and understood from their own perspectives: “basic set of beliefs that guide the action” (Guba 1990, as cited in Creswell, 2009, p. 5). Constructivist worldview:
First, the interaction processes take place among individuals.
Second, the research itself takes place in the setting of the participants where the researcher can understand the problem better.
Third, the researcher intends to make sense of (or interpret) the meanings others have about the situation (Creswell, 2009, p. 8). Descriptive qualitative research with elements of a case study I sampled the site and population *maximum variation sampling
*intentioned sampling 1. school
4. participants I designed the instruments considering key concepts found in the problem and objectives *Observations (I and II cycles groups and their teachers)
*Interviews (for EFL teachers of the school)
*Artifacts (found in and out the context of the lessons observed)
*Questionnaires (for the teachers outside the institution) I put the data collected into preset categories and subcategories
(also mirrored problem and objectives) Categories Sub-categories Teaching in an inclusive classroom
(Teacher's side) Instructional strategies
Teachers´ awareness Learning experience
(Students' side) Students' interaction
Barriers to learning and participation I knew the information was going to be valid because... *the means for collecting data reflected the aims of the study
*key concepts appeared in the instruments
*stated the purpose of each instrument
*used quotations from specialized sources
*action was in context
*collection and analysis of artifacts Now, let's figure this out! The analysis and interpretation process *I classified the information into themes
(within each subcategory) to simplify and summarize. *I made summaries (tables) in which I triangulated
the information among instruments and compared with theoretical literature *I made connections, found similarities and differences...
*I interpreted information and supported own views with literature *I made graphic representations to help reader visualize interpretations *I described what I was doing.
*I described what I gathered. *I draw conclusions Instructional strategies
(interviews-observations) justified the how teachers reached students diversity
fulfilled the EFL principles of participation, interaction, multisensory learning, multiple intelligences, scaffolding, subsumption, and motivation
teachers exceeded in the classroom what they said in the interviews *I placed the information from each instrument into each subcategory
*I chose representative segments (used exact words) Instructional strategies used to address diversity 13 barriers that obstruct the learning and participation of students with significant accommodations Themes In the classroom they did... Teachers said they... Communicative
competence Encourage participation by... awareness of importance of English
play and sing
competitions provided multiple opportunities to participate foster interaction dialogues, pair presentations, group work, speeches, giving flashcards and students make dialogue pairs, trios, group work, cooperative learning Differentiation Address the learning channels during presentation by... V: using flashcards, drawings
A: music, songs, telling stories, repetition, dialogues
K: mime addressed all learning channels during presentation Scaffold the contents and tasks by... drawing on the board
using pictures as support
lots of practice
contextualizing pictures and sentences
emphasizing words and sounds
repetition gave short instructions
gave pieces of information
provided plenty of examples
teacher and peer feedback
modeled the exercises
gave clear instructions
mimed Addressed multiple intelligences by... use of music
group/pair work pair, trios, group work
use of English, production
TPR, dancing, mime
figuring out quantities before saying number
showing and telling the time
chanting and singing Elicit previous knowledge by... Telling stories students can relate to
questioning the students
through pictures and flashcards
bringing familiar objects from home reviewed previous lesson
reminded classroom rules
stated the objective
brainstormed before introducing new topic Motivation talking about the importance of English
playing the radio
using the projector to show videos
rewarding free time after a practice
giving positive feedback
congratulating students class atmosphere
warm up activities
pair, group work
videos Supportive resources
(visuals, audio, realia) *academic support and from the optic of inclusion
They enhanced the teaching experience and supported the children’s needs.
All artifacts turned out to be pertinent.
They were accessible in terms of size, clearness, volume, and explicitness.
There was coherence between the views of the participants and the artifacts found in and out context of the lessons. addressing the learning channels
addressing multiple intelligences
eliciting previous knowledge
motivating the students strategies and artifacts
complement each other Teacher's attitude
cautious Pessimistic attitudes 50% 40% Law is not being implemented
24% System is not ready for inclusion
12% Law is partly implemented
4% Law is implemented wrongly
4% Self confidence
4% Additional work Optimistic attitudes 28% 71% agreement
29% teacher´s role Cautious attitudes 22% 37% Teachers need more training
36% It is a matter of attitude
27% It is a greater responsibility Teachers' awareness
(interviews-questionnaires) The inclusive curriculum is inherent to their job.
They put into practice EFL principles to teach a language. In the process, they differentiate the curriculum, teach culture, reinforce values, promote participation, and research on new ideas to help students.
Their methodology allows the diversification of the teaching methods. By differentiating the curriculum
(18 views) curriculum suited for all students
consider learning styles and multiple intelligences
using variety of techniques
helping students reach their maximum capacities "...classroom routines that attend to, rather than ignore, learner variance in readiness, interest, and learning profile. Such routines maybe referred to as "differentiating curriculum and instruction" (Tomlinson, et al, 2003, p. 121) By promoting culture and values
(6 views) students learn about differences in culture
encourages respect and tolerance
building knowledge, acceptance, and respect toward other cultures MEP's Programa Nacional de Convivencia en Centros Educativos (2011) seeks to "stimulate social relations based on respect, knowledge, acceptance, and enjoyment of diversity, participation, and a sense of belonging" (MEP, 2011, p. 7) By fostering participation
(4 views) Making sure all students get equal opportunities of learning and participation "...Schools should be able to offer opportunities for a range of working methods and individualized learning in order that no pupil is obliged to stand outside the fellowship of and participation in the school" (UNESCO, 2005, p. 16) Through EFL methodology
(4 views) Teachers use their many skills, ability to motivate students and promote collaboration
EFL intend that everybody communicates regardless of individual differences "the curriculum should be flexible enough for embracing the needs of particular students in terms of religious beliefs, linguistic background, ethnic differences, particular impairments, and so forth" (UNESCO, 2001c, p. 95) By recognizing the types of diversity
(3 views) nationalities, ages, learning styles, physical abilities, culture, socio-economic levels, knowledge, multiple intelligences, academic levels, etc. By understanding the concept of inclusion (3 views) all included in the learning process
including all in the normal curriculum "Placing the student at the center does not imply that students need to be taught and will learn subject matter separately. Within the framework of the classroom, individual adaptations can be made" (UNESCO, 2004, p. 17) By researching
(1 view) teachers research on new ideas to enrich the teaching-learning process UNESCO (2004) suggests finding out "what students already know and can do; what they do not know and cannot do; what interests them; what related experiences they have had, and what learning styles work best for them"(p. 20) EFL inclusive curriculum differentiated instruction
values EFL Methodology
participation types of diversity
concept of inclusion
research Is EFL methodology comparable to curricular accommodations? Yes Yes, but cannot be applied in the case of significant accommodations. No Students' interaction
(interviews-observations-questionnaires) CLT : “the role of the students is of active participants in their own learning process. Learner centered, cooperative, collaborative learning is emphasized, but not at the expense of appropriate teacher-centered activity”
(Brown, 2007, p. 46). students Filling out a worksheet (pairs)
greeting, praying (whole group)
playing hot potato (whole group)
TPR (whole group)
playing memory (pairs, trios)
brainstorming (whole group)
playing bingo (small groups)
making illustrations (pairs)
dancing TPR song (whole group)
Q/A task (pairs)
cooperative learning task Student with barriers to learning and participation working alone in a worksheet with different subject
working alone in a worksheet with different subject
working alone in a worksheet with different subject
playing memory game with peers (by own request)
inferring spontaneously (even though it was not on his PEI)
spending time with teacher, working on own booklet, different subject
working with teacher, different subject
walking around, no participation
working with a tutor on a different subject
worksheet in a different subject
spending time with teacher, by then joining a group (by own request) worked with different syllabus (13X)
sat apart by wall or next to teacher's desk (13X)
did not participate of other activities planned (11X)
did not receive adequate amount of time indiv. attention (10X)
did not interact with peers (10X)
did not share with peers (9X)
were given verbal instructions and then left alone working (6X)
received plenty of personalized instruction from teacher (2X)
refussed to work in his PEI (2X) Barriers to learning and participation
(interviews-observations-questionnaires) 13 barriers: 12 within the system, 1 within the student
PEI with different academic levels main barrier
PEI with different academic levels in turn generates other barriers
Affective factors (negative) behind tags
Students feel unmotivated, undervalued, discriminated, dependent, confused. lack of resources
(5 views) PEI with different academic levels as separate programs
(13 views) Teachers do not have the academic background to support students
(4 views) Evaluation policies (3 views) Negative attitudes toward inclusion
(3 views) Official policies do not agree with inclusion
(2 views) The attitude of parents
(2 views) Teachers are more concerned with the completion of the program
(1 view) inappropriate methods
(1 view) the gap between the English I and II cycles programs
(1 view) teachers do not have enough support from the principal
(1 view) The paperwork for the approval
of accommodations takes too long (1 view) focus on the impairment Barriers generated by the PEI *Affective factors (15 views) *lack of time to provide individual attention (5 views)
*discipline of groups interferes with individual attention (4 views)
*large groups do not allow indiv. attention (4 views)
*interruptions while giving individual attention (2 views)
*the amount of extra work for
*teachers who deal with several accommodations at once (1 view)
*pressure of teachers and support committee who do not allow students to share (1 view) Affective factors that interfere in learning Students are being
33% Students feel
33% Students seem
27% Students become
6% Under these conditions, how are students with barriers to learning and participation able to acquire/learn a language? So, if EFL teachers use a variety of strategies and didactic materials to teach a language while addressing diversity, what's their attitude about the inclusive curriculum? Well, if teachers understand the implications of inclusion, are they really aware of the inclusive curriculum? Again, teachers seem aware of the inclusive curriculum. It is consubstantial to the EFL principles.
However, What happens with the students that do not benefit from it? As seen, students with barriers to learning and participation are not getting the right learning experience to learn a language.
What keeps them from learning? Discussion Thanks for your attention.
It is deeply appreciated! participation, interaction, multisensory learning, multiple intelligences, scaffolding, subsumption, and motivation The instructional strategies and the supportive resources EFL teachers used in their classrooms proved to be pertinent to address diversity. Negative attitudes: pointed to the divorce Law 8661-System. The other negative opinions could be seen as merely consequences of the no implementation of the law. Optimistic attitudes: agreement with the law. Proactive views of teachers as promoters of inclusion Empathy towards inclusion substantiated the instructional strategies, since they are inclusive per se. Cautious attitudes: The need of more training to meet the expectations of the law. Inclusion was in the hands of educators, therefore their attitude was determinant. The rest of the opinions placed an emphasis on responsibility. *The inclusive curriculum is inherent to EFL methodology.
*Teachers differentiate instruction, promote culture and values, foster participation, use a special methodology, recognize the types of diversity, understand the concept of inclusion, and research in benefit of the students.
*This awareness perhaps propitiated their pessimistic views about the law not being implemented, partly implemented, and wrongly implemented.
*Teachers practice accommodations when differentiating in their daily practice.
*Their understanding of the principles involved in EFL, which are different from all other subjects of the curriculum, make them believe that the students with significant accommodations are not being considered in the curriculum.
*The requirements of official policies do not allow the implementation of EFL methodology with students that follow a PEI with different levels. EFL methodology fails when participation and interaction, vital ingredients of the Communicative Language Teaching Approach that aims at developing communicative competence, take place in the EFL classrooms. The participation and interaction of the students in the PEI was different to those in the regular curriculum.The students with barriers to learning and participation were in clear disadvantage in terms of learning a language. There are many barriers in the system *The PEI designed with different academic level than the rest is the main barrier.
*lack of resources in school as well as appropriate infrastructure;
*teachers not having the academic background to support these kids;
*evaluation policies that focus on numbers, not process; *negative attitudes about inclusion;
*mismatch among policies and law;
*negative attitude of parents;
*the urgency for accomplishing the program keeps teachers from focusing in the real needs of students;
*inappropriate methods of instruction; and others. *Affective factors was the main barrier.
*Lack of time during the lesson to provide individual attention;
*the discipline of the group while giving individual attention;
*the amount of interruptions while giving individual attention;
*the distractions produced by the dynamics of the class;
*the amount of extra work generated by the curricular accommodations, specially if teachers dealt with several at once; and
*the pressure of teachers and support committee, that in their attempt to comply with the requirements of the policies, did not allow children to share. lack of motivation
being undervalued in their capacities by teachers and classmates
suffering discrimination from teachers and classmates
building dependency with the teacher Affective factors There seems to be a very slim chance for these students to learn English. The existence of methodological frameworks such as the EFL principles are of great advantage for the Costa Rican educative system and society as well, since EFL educators in their daily doing foster inclusive values. *Although well intentioned, the official policies (integration) do not converge with the EFL inclusive curriculum If teachers continue to implement such policies for significant accommodations, they will be damaging the integrity of the students by excluding them from the classroom dynamics. Teachers are required to comply with regulations that dictate against their academic background and their morals. The missing piece of the puzzle! Credits: