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Models Of Memory
Transcript of Models Of Memory
Memory Short- Term Memory Long- Term Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Rehearsal Sensory Input (Visual, auditory
proprioceptive and tactile) Any sensory stimuli like visual, auditory or others enter through the sensory memory, here it can be registered for a very brief period of time, there is a lot of information that comes in this store but only a little part of this information, the one which we really pay attention to is the information goes from this stage to the short – term memory store. SENSORY INPUT Attention is needed so that the information goes on to the next store
visual, auditory, proprioceptive and tactile There can be about 7 items in this store and they remain here from 6 – 12 seconds. Attention is needed or else information found in this store is lost easily. Rehearsal is plays a key role in defining what stays in the long - term memory. If information is rehearsed it will be stored in the long - term memory store. This is seen as an unlimited capacity storage of information, and it is said that the information found here could last for forever in here, although psychologists can’t assure how much information can go into this store or how long will it last, it can’t be proven. The information that is in here is not an exact replica of the actual fact, but more like the outline of it. Lost through decay. Lost through displacement or decay Lost through decay, retrieval, displacement or interference. The Working Model of Memory Baddeley and Hitch created the working model of memory in 1974, and it was based upon the multi – store model of memory. However Baddeley and Hitch decided to challenge the view that Atkinson and Shiffrin of the short – term memory only being one single store. This is a model of the short – term memory and it includes various components, opposed to the multi – store model of memory, which only includes one. Central executive Phonological
Sketchpad Long - term storage memory Strengths Weaknesses It distinguishes between long – term memory and short – term memory, their capacity, their duration and how they encode.
It is supported by various psychological studies like Clive case study that demonstrated that long – term memory and short – term memory were separated, and also the empirical study of Glanzer and Cuntiz in 1966, which demonstrated that long – term memory and short – term memory were separated and that one could be affected without the other one being affected. One of the weaknesses of the multi – store model of memory is that it is very simple to describe the entire process of memory, it doesn’t include or specify the strategies used by humans to remember things.Another weakness of this model is that it only focuses on the process, which means that it only focuses on how long things are stored in each store not the real nature, because there are also some things that are easier to remember than others. Another weakness is that it suggests that the rote rehearsal is the only way to transfer information from short – term memory to long – term memory. There are people that learn new pieces of information without consciously rehearsing them. So the way in which this model of memory presents the short – term memory store may be partly wrong. The central executive is the component that coordinates and monitors, kind of conducts the other components, which can be name tagged as slave systems. It is the most important part of the whole model because it is seen as the commander of the other components. The central executive component has a limited capacity and it can process any sensorial information. It is suggested by Baddeley that the most important job of this component is the job of attention control. He suggests that this can happen in two different ways: the first one is an automatic level, which is based on the habit and it is more or less automatically controlled by the stimuli that comes from the outside environment, this way includes routines procedures. And the second way is the supervisory atentional level, which is the one hat deals with emergencies or the one that creates new strategies when the old ones are no longer useful or enough for what is needed. This component can be divided into two parts: The first one is the articulatory control system, the one that store information verbally. And the second part is the phonological store, or the inner ear. This part holds speech – based material in a phonological form. This component can hold information for about 1.5 – 2 seconds if it is not refreshed by the articulatory control system (saying it many times to remember it). This component can also receive information directly from the sensory memory in form of auditory material, from the long – term memory in form of verbal information, and finally from the articulatory control system. Strengths Weaknesses This component has the role of acting as a temporary and passive display store until the information in it is needed. This component is also known as the inner eye. It is in charged of dealing with visual and spatial information that comes from either sensory memory or long – term memory. This component is seen as an unlimited capacity storage of information, and it is suggested that the information found here could last for forever inside this component, although psychologists can’t assure how much information can go into this store or how long will it last, it can’t be proven. The information that is in here is not an exact replica of the actual fact, but more like the outline of it. There are various experiments that have been done throughout the years that provide information, which supports this model. For example the dual – task technique investigations like the one done by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974. This model also provides much more detail in how the memory process works within the human brain, it includes the processing of information and also how it is stored so it is very useful to psychologists or people in general that desire to understand specific cognitive tasks. This model also has the advantage that it provides explanation why humans can perform different cognitive tasks at the same time without any kind of distortion, this is known as multi – tasking.Finally this model has helped scientists gain more knowledge and understanding and advance in the understanding on how the human brain works, like for example Pickering and Gathercole in 2001, using the working model of memory found out that the working memory plays a very important role in learning specially in childhood. Although there is evidence that supports this model of memory, it can't be completely guarantied by psychologists that the information that is provided by this model of memory is completely reliable.