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Theories Mind Map
Transcript of Theories Mind Map
Early Childhood By: Lyndy Comer, Rhonda Elwess, Sandy Seregin, and Amara Stanley To find out what one is fitted to do, and to secure an opportunity to do it, is the key to happiness. John Dewey Childhood is a promise
that is never kept.
~Ken Hill Father of Modern Education Make Sense of the World for Children Keep curriculum relevant to students lives. Plan purposeful curriculum Teachers should use their knowledge of the world to expand children's knowledge The interests and background of each child and group must be considered when teachers plan learning experiences Teachers must be sensitive to the values and needs of families. Maria Montessori
Never help a child with a task at which he feels he can succeed. Major Influence for Early Childhood Theorists Child Centered Environments Provide the children with child-sized, working tools and furnishings. Keep materials within children's reach. "Educate the senses" by adding beauty and order in the classroom. Encourage Responsibility Take the time to teach children to do things for themselves. Allow scheduled time for children to plan their own activities. Observe the Children Use careful observation to guide curriculum planning. Take time to observe and reflect. Erik Erikson There is in every child at every
stage a new miracle of vigorous
unfolding, which constitutes a
new hope and a new responsibility
for all. Psychosocial Development Trust vs. Mistrust Jean Piaget Children's Interactions with the environment are what creates learning. Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor (Birth-18 months): reactions to the world are purely reflexive. Learning is through senses and reflexes. Preoperational (18 months-6years): Children are egocentric, can only focus on one characteristic of a thing or a person at a time, gather information from what they experience, and overgeneralize their experiences. Concrete Operational (6year- 12years): children possess
the characteristic of reversibility, are able to hold several
qualities, can form ideas based on reasoning, and are limited
in thinking to objects and familiar events. Formal Operational (12year+): logical thinking with hypothetical
terms develop. Children learn best when they are actually doing the work and creating their own understanding of what's going on. Children need every possible opportunity to do things for themselves. Children learn only when their curiosity is not fully satisfied. The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done.” Lev
Vygotsky “The child begins to perceive the world not only through his [or her] eyes but also through his [or her] speech” Zone of Proximal
Development Observe children closely and plan curriculum that encourages children's emerging abilities Pair up children who can learn from each other Plan curriculum to stretch children's competence Social Interaction Encourage conversations Provide opportunities for children to work together Eight Stages of Hold babies during feeding Respond to distress Autonomy vs. Shame Give children simple choices and eliminate false ones Set clear limits Accept needs for both independence and dependence Initiative vs. Guilt Encourage Independence Focus on gains, not mistakes Consider individual differences Howard Gardner
If I know you're very good in music, I can predict with just about zero accuracy whether you're going to be good or bad in other things. Multiple Intelligence Theory 8 Different Intelligences Visual/Spatial Mathematical/Logical Interpersonal Verbal/Linguistic Intrapersonal Musical/Rhythmic Bodily/Kinaesthetic Naturalistic Respect All Intelligences The question is not "how smart are you" but
"how are you smart" Kids need to explore in different ways Teach/Assess in Different Ways Provide various stations that use different smarts Give students opportunities to practice all their smarts Use lessons that combine different smarts Use a rubric vs. a letter grade to assess achievement