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Transcript of The Enlightenment
Are people capable of governing themselves?
What are the risks and dangers of self government? Are they worth it?
As we learn about Enlightenment thinkers, try to think about how they would have answered these questions... The enlightenment was a philosophical movement in which regular people began to question the world around them.
It featured advances in science, mathematics, and astronomy.
At the same time, the philosophers began thinking about government. What should government do? Hobbes -Observation: People are generally bad
Life without strong government is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, & short.”
- Hypothesis: Absolute government is needed to control evil behavior
- Like a King, except without power given from God -Observation: “When the legislature & executive are united in the same person, there is no liberty (freedom)”
-Hypothesis: Gov’t must have “Separation of Powers” -- 3 branches Montesquieu Rousseau -Observation: “man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains.”
-Hypothesis: Gov’t is contract between people & rulers. People can break it (rebel) Voltaire -Observation: Life is better with liberty
-Hypothesis: Freedom of speech & religion, separation of church & state
-“I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it. “ Locke -Observation: gov’t exists to “preserve life, liberty, & property”
-Hypothesis: people should be sovereign (rule)
-Hypothesis: monarchs not chosen by God