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Alexandra Powell

on 9 March 2014

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Total Instructional Alignment is making sure that what we teach, how we teach, and what we assess are congruent.

What is TIA?
Aligning the System
Key Points:
What TIA looks like:
My representation of an aligned instructional model
TIA Steps
Alignment of the System
Involves changing the way we currently think to better align the system to the student.
Alignment of the standards, curriculum, and assessment
Involves aligning curriculum to existing standards and understanding how to accurately assess student learning
Alignment of instructional practices in the classroom
Involves teachers delivering instruction in a way that includes standards, curriculum, and assessment in daily lessons
Alexandra Powell
Lisa Carter is a nationally
recognized speaker, author,
and consultant. Her work
focuses on the Total
Instructional Alignment
process, implementing the
Common Core State
Standards through TIA, and
instructional leadership
Effective School Leadership
Learning Leaders
Importance of Collaborative Teams
Vertical & Horizontal
Learner-Centered System
Reworking the Grading System
Effective Leaders
understand which school changes are most likely to improve student achievement
understand what changes imply for staff, students, and parents
understand how to alter and fine tune their leadership practices accordingly
are directly involved in the design and implementation of curriculum, instruction, and assessment
Research indicates that as leadership improves, so does student achievement.
Waters, Marzano, McNulty, 2004
"Schools do not need
instructional leaders-
they need
who focus on evidence
of learning."
DuFour & Marzano, 2009
The importance of
Collaborative Teams
Research shows that higher levels of student achievement occur in settings that utilize collaborative teams.
Dufour, 2011
Students learn best when teachers work collaboratively to gather evidence of student learning through assessments and use this information to discuss, evaluate, plan and improve their instructional practices.
DuFour, 2011
Effective leaders must monitor the ongoing work of these teams by asking for submissions from their collaborations. The leaders must then examine the content, draw conclusions, and work with teachers to align standards, curriculum, and instruction.
Dufour & Marzano, 2009
"Time devoted to building the capacity of teachers to work in teams is far better spent than time devoted to observing individual teachers."
DuFour & Marzano, 2009
DuFour, 2011
In 2007, the
Adams County School District
(Colorado) created a "standards-based system" organized around engaging students in 21st Century skills.

This system has no traditional letter grades or grade levels.

system focuses on achievement grouping, looking at student performance levels in ten content areas. Once a student has demonstrated proficiency or mastery at a level, they advance to the next performance level.
Dessoff, 2012
The Grading Reform
"Inaccurate and unfair grading systems are not creative, but rather a violation of the boundaries of effective grading policies."
Research indicates:
Improving grading policies enhances work on curriculum, instruction, assessment, and leadership.
Effective grading policies reduce discipline problems, increase college credits, improve teacher moral, lead to higher number of students enrolled, and reduce number of unexcused absences.
Reeves, 2011
Aligning Standards, Curriculum, & Assessments
Key Points:
Curriculum Mapping
Backward Mapping
Understanding Standards
Common Core
Curriculum Mapping
Curriculum Mapping is a procedure for collecting data about the operational curriculum in a school and in a district-the instruction that students are experiencing.
Mapping provides an active tool to give better access and a clearer picture of what is happening inside a classroom.
By mapping what is actually taught and when it is taught, teachers produce data that they can use in conjunction with assessment data to make necessary revisions in curriculum to enhance student learning.
A Conversation with Heidi Hayes Jacobs, 2004
Benefits of Web-Based Mapping
1. Allows easy alignment of curriculum with state standards
2. Documents what is actually being taught in classrooms
3. Identifies gaps and repetition in instruction
4. Provides principals easy access to curriculum
5. Increases communication via email
6. Assists new teachers in finding quality resources and lesson plans
7. Facilitates collaborative team discussions, vertically and horizontally
8. Makes curriculum meetings more efficient

Barger, Edens, O'Neill, & Wilcoxen, 2007
"Electronic mapping can give teachers immediate and powerful control over the curriculum."
Heidi Hayes Jacobs, 2004
Can standards improve
student achievement?
According to Robert Marzano (2001),
"Standards hold the greatest hope for improving student achievement."

However, modifications are needed:

A monitoring system that
tracks student progress on specific standards
and spans over the course of numerous grade levels should be implemented. Plotting the progress allows us to see more reliable patterns and is more valid than a single test score.

internal and external feedback
balance each other and lesson the need for high-stakes testing.

Decisions about what students should learn and are held accountable for should be made at the
local level.
A Conversation with Robert Marzano, 2001
Understanding Common Core
Debunking the Myths
1. The standards are not a curriculum and do not dictate how a teacher should teach.
2. "Unpacking" the standards helps break down large learner goals into more workable objectives.
Boom's Taxonomy
Thinking boxes
Task Analysis
3. Curriculum should be mapped backward from desired performance.
4. Numerous assessments should evaluate progress towards learning objectives and goals.
McTighe & Wiggins, 2012
Lisa Carter, 2007
The Power of Assessments
Classroom Assessments:

Should utilize both formative and summative assessments, provide insight on where a student is in his/her learning
, clarify each student's need for scaffolding, track progress in order to know what happens next in learning
School-Level Assessments:
Should help identify areas that need attention due to many students struggling, create a forum for teachers to learn from one another, help clarify strengths and weaknesses in teaching styles, identify students who aren't mastering standards and make plan for intervention
Institutional-Level Assessments:
Provide superintendents, school boards, legislators, and stakeholders annual information regarding local students, allow room for program improvement when certain areas, schools, teachers, or students are identified as "in need"
Stiggins & DuFour, 2009
Aligning Instructional
Practices in Classroom
Create a consistent internal system
Start with objectives that focus on single unit of instruction
Break the objective into a learning progression
Use progression to establish daily goals
Translate daily targets into student friendly language
Marzano, 2013
Recommendations for Classroom
"Any system that organizes statements of what students are expected to know and be able to do enhances student learning because it provides clarity to students and teachers alike. Educators should feel free to create their own systems or adapt those that others have proposed."
Marzano, 2013
Barger, S., Edens, D., O'Neill, B., & Wilcoxen, S. Strengthening Instruction Through Web-Based Curriculum Mapping.
. Nov/Dec2007, Vol. 87 Issue 2, p56-57.

Dessof, A. Education Reformer: Robert J. Marzano. Models for Education Reform, Part 1.
District Administration
, Mar2012, Vol. 48 Issue 3 p78-84.

DuFour, R. Work Together But Only if You Want To.
Phi Delta Kappan
, Feb2011, Vol. 92 Issue 5, p57-61.

DuFour, R. & Marzano, R. High-Leverage Strategies for Principal Leadership.
Educational Leadership.
Feb2009, Vol. 66 Issue 5, p62-68.

McTighe, J. & Wiggins, G. Misconceptions about Common Core.
Phi Delta Kappan
. Dec2012/Jan2013, Vol. 94 Issue 4, p6.

Marzano, R. Targets, Objectives, Standards: How Do They Fit?
Educational Leadership.
May2013, Vol. 70 Issue 8, p82-83.

Perkins-Gough, D. Creating a Timely Curriculum: A Conversation with Heidi Hayes Jacobs.
Educational Leadership
. Dec2003/Jan2004, Vol. 61 Issue 4, p12-17.

Reeves, D. Taking the Grading Conversation Public.
Educational Leadership,
Nov2011, Vol. 69 Issue 3, p76-79.

Scherer, M. How and Why Standards Can Improve Student Achievement: A Conversation with Robert J. Marzano.
Educational Leadership
. Sep2001, Vol. 59 Issue 1, p14-19.

Stiggings, R. & DuFour, R. Maximizing the Power of Formative Assessments.
Phi Delta Kappan
. May2009, Vol. 90 Issue 9, p640-644.

Waters, J. Marzano, R. & McNulty, B. Leadership That Sparks Learning.
Educational Leadership
. Apr2004, Vol.61 Issue 7, p48-51.

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