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Computer Science Operating System Presentation

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Udbhav Kamboj

on 17 January 2014

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Transcript of Computer Science Operating System Presentation

Functions
of an Operating System

Commonly known as the File System, each operating system organizes its info according to a certain method.
We use graphical interfaces as a way to organize information and how we name files and folders ,which is supported by file management.

Folder Hierarchies:
- One popular way to create a file system directory is through a a folder hierarchy, one in which folders contain sub-folders that contain the files themselves.
- On Unix/Linux Operating systems (Including Mac OSX), the system hierarchy is begun through the root directory (/), followed by sub-directories (/usr, /dev) and files.
- On Windows and MS-DOS, the system hierarchy is begun through the main Drive (C:), followed by Directories/Folders (C:\My Documents) and sub-directories that relate to certain topics (Pictures, Music).

Note-External Devices:
External devices can also be considered a component of an Operating System file structure, although limits are also placed on their storage capacity. For example, a single layer DVD is limited to 4.7GB while USB’s commonly come in 4,8 or 16 GB sizes.
Basics - File
Management:
Keyboard Shortcuts
What are Keyboard Shortcuts?
a combination of keys that performs a computer function

-Quicker and easier method of navigating computer functions

Modifying File Systems:
- Commands to access file system: For Mac and Linux, one can use cp (copy) and mv (move) while in MS-DOS and Windows one can use copy and move
Performs Basic and common tasks
Graphics Portion:
- In Windows, one primarily relies on the graphical interface (In Edit menu of Explorer), that can be used to move files from one directory to another.

- Windows, Mac and Linux all use a graphical interface as a way to aid the user in organizing data. Windows has Explorer, while Mac and Linux have their own equations.

Shortcuts reduce what needs to be inputted into the computer down to a few keystrokes

File Security and Backup:

File configurations and the files themselves can be backed up through RAID systems, which ensure a proper backup of the file structure if one happens to fail. One can also backup a file system onto an external device such as a hard drive, and set up auto-sync for ease of use.

To use a keyboard shortcut, a combination of keys must be pressed either simultaneously, or in a specific order

-Saves time and effort
File
Management

Keyboard Shortcuts for
Windows
The Windows Keyboard

Control keys. These keys are used alone or in combination with other keys to perform certain actions. The most frequently used control keys are CTRL, ALT, the Windows logo key , and ESC.



Function keys. The function keys are used to perform specific tasks. They are labeled as F1, F2, F3, and so on, up to F12.

the general task of an OS is to manage and coordinate the interaction between hardware and software resources to make it easier for a program to interact without the programs needing to know how the computer works
Here are the list of detailed task that the os performs
processor management :

manages the processor
assigns processing time to programs so they will run smoothly
graphical user interface :
allows user to manage the computer by clicking the mouse instead of typing in codes due to GUI
makes it easier for users to use a computer

application program interface:
allows programmers to create programs without having to know the details of the hardware due to the operating system is managing it

file system :
create and delete both files and directories
provide access to files
assigns space for files
create backup of files
secure files
allows user to name the files
allows user to move the files
writes information on the files such as date of create, name, type and location of the file

memory management :
manages the memory (cache, virtual memory and RAM)
also assigns memory space, loading program binary code into memory
it frees the memory so other things can be load into it
this allows the computer to save info about the user (cookies) and allow recent programs or files to be access quicker

device management :
it installs drivers so the computer will know how to use the device and allows programs to connect to the device through the operating system
it also monitor the devices

storage management :
assigns space in the hard drive which a file or program will be save to
shows how many space is left
manages the hard drive and storage space
allow you to access the saved data

networking :
allows you to connect to the internet through managing the internet connection
also it manages the wireless adapter, router or modem (if they are connected to the computer) which are essential items used to connect to the internet

program/application execution :
the program can interact with the hardwares by following the rules and procedures programmed into the operating system
loads the program/application into RAM, cache or virtual memory
this makes it easier for a user to execute a program without going through the trouble of loading the program into the memory and making sure the hardware and program are compatible

security :
operating system protects the resources of system, user authentication, file attributes like read, write, encryption, and backup of data

Common Windows Keyboard Shortcuts
OS X Keyboard Shortcuts
Modifier Keys
A modifier key with a letter key is needed.
It Alters the way OSX interprets a letter key or mouse click

Command Key
Control Key
Option Key
Function Key
Common OSX Shortcuts
Linux Keyboard Shortcuts
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Windows:
Pros
• More then 80% of the desktop computers in the world run a Windows operating system
• You won’t have any trouble finding hardware and drivers
• You won’t have any problems finding support
• Most widely supported operating system for games
• Large shareware and freeware application library

Cons
• Prone for spyware and virus
• Support will eventually be needed
• Unstable due to complexity
• Poor security
• Limited access to the library of free open source software

Pros
• User friendly
• Content creation is its strength.
• More secure than Windows due to its UNIX base
• More stable than Windows due to Apple’s tighter control over the configuration options and its UNIX base.
• Limited spyware or virus applications.
• More powerful than Windows due to its UNIX base.
• You have almost complete access to the enormous library of free open source applications.
Cons
• More expensive upfront than other choices. Some would say this is offset by less maintenance required over the life of the system.
• Less support. You have to go to Apple for all your hardware problems.
• Less hardware choices than Windows. For your average user this isn’t much of a problem. All the common hardware types will work.
• More complex than Windows due to its UNIX base. This really isn’t a major con because OSX does a great job of hiding this complexity from the end user.

Mac OSX
Pros:
Pros
• User friendly
• Content creation is its strength.
• More secure than Windows due to its UNIX base
• More stable than Windows due to Apple’s tighter control over the configuration options and its UNIX base.
• Limited spyware or virus applications.
• More powerful than Windows due to its UNIX base.
• You have almost complete access to the enormous library of free open source applications.

Cons
Cons:
• Less support. You have to go to Apple for all your hardware problems.
• Less hardware choices than Windows. For your average user this isn’t much of a problem. All the common hardware types will work.
• More complex than Windows due to its UNIX base. This really isn’t a major con because OSX does a great job of hiding this complexity from the end user.

Linux
Pros:
Pros
• Runs on just about any hardware
• More options than any other system.
• Way more secure than Windows XP and even OSX.
• Most software is free.
• Full access to the free open source library of software.


Cons:

Cons
• The latest and greatest hardware is typically slower to reach Linux.
• The sheer number of options can be daunting to a non-technical user.
• Limited support for proprietary applications.
• Limited vendor support.

Operating Systems:
Full transcript