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Speed Enhancement Through the Application of a Novel Training Theory.

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Brad DeWeese

on 21 September 2016

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Transcript of Speed Enhancement Through the Application of a Novel Training Theory.

Speed Enhancement Through the Application of an Evidence-Based Training Theory.
The Coaching Objective
These objectives are completed through the orchestration of a well-planned and quantifiable training program that is based on:

1. Sporting Requirements
2. Desired Physical Attributes of Sport
3. Physical Attributes (Genetics) of Athlete
4. Trainable Factors of Athlete
5. Optimization of program through Monitoring
Phase 1
General Preparatory
Strength Training

1. Introduce Strength Endurance.

2. Transition into Rudimentary Maximal Strength.
3x10 to 3x5

3. Utilize Basic Strength Movements.
Special Preparatory
Speed Development

1. Maximize accelerative abilities through incline sprinting.

2. Transition onto flat-ground to maximize acceleration from improved strength and body positioning.

3. Introduce speed-endurance as applicable.
Work Capacity Development
Elastic Strength Development

1. Compliment other training agendas with similar miometric "concentric"-dominant movements.

2. Emphasize "out" and "up".

3. Recall athlete will be fatigued from higher VL in strength-training so ability to withstand landing forces may be compromised.
1. Emphasize the development of metabolic qualities required for future blocks.
A. Improved enzymatic sensitivity
B. Increased iso-enzyme activity
C. Mitochondrial/ capillary density
D. Decreased sensitivity to Lactate & Ammonia
= Increased Phosphate turnover

2. Prescribe basic strength movements.
A. Many coaches continue to "turn the bar over" in fear of losing RFD.
B. However, temporary removal
improves

RFD

3. Increase the benefits of full Olympic lifts through the implementation of derivatives.
A. Pull to Knee
B. Clean & Snatch Grip Shoulder Shrug (DKB)
C. Pull from Floor (DKB)
D. Mid Thigh Pull (DKB)
Designing the Plan
The Black Box Approach to Training
The White Box Approach to Training
Periodization
Definition here
Phase 2
Pre-/ Early Competition
Strength Training
Emphasized Competition
Speed Development
Restorative Maintenance
Elastic Strength Development
Optimization of Planning
1. An example of Evidence-Based Programming.

2. Answers request of various researchers in on-going debate on programming "periodization" strategies in scholarly literature.
Strength component of this model is based on the "Conjugate Sequence Periodization" Model.

1. Utilizes blocks (concentrated loads) to optimize a training component..."
Phasic Potentiation
"

2. Maintains previously built abilities through over-reaching strategies.

3. Allows for power and impulse to be enhanced through "bleeding" effects of blocks and exercises prescribed in an orderly manner.
Seamless Sequential Integration
Seamless
: Having no awkward transition, interruptions, or indications of disparity.

Sequential
: Forming or following in a logical order or sequence.

Integration
: The action of combining previously separated parts into one unified system.
The SSI model aims at improving an athlete's preparedness
through the unification and progressive development of
previously separate training agendas.

In addition, SSI is a training approach that demonstrates
plasticity
as it can be further refined based on scientific rigor
and individual athlete-responsiveness
.
Speed matured through "Vertical Integration"

1. Short to Long Speed Development.

2. Heavily influenced by work of Charlie Francis.
Various physical abilities should never be completely removed from a training program, simply maintained. The objective is to prevent an athlete from never being too far away from competitive ability.
Improvements in GRF and sprint ability may relate to the improvement of an athlete's Rate of Force Development (RFD).
Performance-Based Approach
1. System in which only the "input" and "output" are known.

2. The internal process is ignored or undetectable.

3. Coach only knows if "end product" is better than "beginning product".
An improvement from last season may lead to a belief that a program works.

.........But,
Could training have been optimized?
Could the athlete have improved even more?
Evidence-Based Approach
1. The coach is aware of not only the "input" and "output", but also the internal process.

2. In sport, the internal process represents the individual physiological adaptations occurring as a result of training choices.

3. These adaptations are made known through "Athlete-Monitoring".

4. Testing is "ongoing" & reflects demands of the sport.

5. Testing is valid & reliable.

6. Tests resemble training.
What Can You See When The Box Becomes Transparent?
Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull
Opto-Gaits Speed Tracking
CMJ & Static Jumping
The Big Picture
Evidence From the Field
Data displayed was collected on current World cup & Olympic athletes during the 2011 through 2013 training years leading up to their medal winning performances.
Countermovement Jump Height improvements over a period of 10 months leading into Bobsled World Champs. Data collected on Kistler Force Plate.
Changes in Peak Force and RFD Measures taken during the Isometric Mid Thigh Pull. Critical sporting time periods are reported.
Changes in running abilities occurring after completion of 2 blocks emphasizing acceleration abilities through incline sprinting of a group of World Class sprint & bobsled athletes.
Current standards of excellence of RFD & Impulse at 90ms
Over-Reaching
1. Allows athlete to retain fitness qualities gained in previous blocks.
2. May prevent enzymatic involution.
3. Deters any unnecessary taper.
4. Improved RFD occurs through a significant reduction in volume-load following an over-reaching stimulus.
Progression of Strength Training
Progression of Speed Development
Elastic Strength Development
Comprehensive View of Development
Evidence of the Supercompensatory actions resulting from the removal and re-implementation of explosive activities during a strength-endurance training block.
Current Standards of Excellence in Sprint Ability
The Velocity (m/s) of World-Class Female Sprinters over first 20m
The Ground Contact Time of World-Class Female Sprinters over first 20m
Running Velocity over first 20m
Ground Contact Time over first 20m
Comparing the running velocities of World Class Bobsled athletes and World Class Sprinters before and after the completion of 2 blocks emphasizing acceleration via incline sprinting.
Running Velocity over first 20m: Pre-Stimulus
Running Velocity over first 20m: Post-Stimulus
Procedural Memory Development
The psychological basis for "short to long"
The memory of how to perform a task


Type of Implicit Memory: A memory in which previous experiences aid in performance of a task without conscious awareness.


Developed through procedural learning which is the repeating of a complex task until neural proficiency and mapping exists.
Procedural Memory Development in Sprint Practice Design
1. Goal is to enhance acceleration mechanics through procedural memory development.

2. The total volume that can be prescribed is 300m.

3. The coach can go "long to short" or "short to long"
A. Long to Short

3x100
or
2x150
B. Short to Long

3x10x10m
or
2x10x15m
A. In the "L-S" scenario, the athlete has 3 opportunities to acquire and perfect a skill.

B. In the "S-L" scenario, the athlete has up to 30 opportunities to acquire and perfect a skill.
Why focus on acceleration through incline sprinting?
1. At beginning of a training year, even an Olympic level athlete has lesser strength values in relation to their competitive abilities.

2. This training state compromises ability to hold positions. Hence, athlete may prematurely come out of acceleration phase.
Why run 20 meters when you cannot hold form for 15m?
Benefits of Inclined Sprinting
1. Improves propulsion forces.

2. Reinforces proper shin angles.

3. Requires athlete to maintain low heel recovery.

4. May improve stride length upon return to flat.
Are Resisted Sprints Worth the Investment?
1. Resisted sprinting tools defined in literature as: Towing, Wind, Hills.

2. Letzelter (1995) postulated resisted sprinting alters biomechanics thus "decreasing" sprint ability.
- However, load may have been too great.
What does the study of World Class athletes show us?
Changes in stride length following 2 blocks emphasizing acceleration development through incline-sprinting.
Data demonstrates incline-sprinting did not chronically alter stride length or stride frequency. In fact, stride length increased once athletes returned to "flat-ground" sprinting.

1. Continue to Develop and Refine Maximal Strength.

2. Manipulate Volume-Load to Revisit Maximal Strength Endurance and Maintain Physiological Adaptations.
3x5 to 5x5 to 3x5

3. Continue to Utilize Basic Strength Movements.

4. Begin to Prescribe RFD Movements.
1. Emphasize the development of metabolic qualities required for future blocks.
A. Improved enzymatic sensitivity
B. Increased iso-enzyme activity
C. Mitochondrial/ capillary density
D. Decreased sensitivity to Lactate & Ammonia
= Increased Phosphate turnover

2. Prescribe basic strength movements.
A. Many coaches continue to "turn the bar over" in fear of losing RFD.
B. However, temporary removal
improves

RFD

3. Increase the benefits of full Olympic lifts through the implementation of derivatives.
A. Pull to Knee
B. Clean & Snatch Grip Shoulder Shrug (DKB)
C. Pull from Floor
D. Mid Thigh Pull (DKB)
Evidence of the Supercompensatory actions resulting from the removal and re-implementation of explosive activities during a strength-endurance training block.
Speed Development

1. Continue to promote and retain fitness abilities through implementation of extensive aerobic training.

2. Gradually remove "intensive" work as special endurance and speed endurance work replace this.

3. Tempo can begin to serve as the "chicken soup" for the athlete.
Elastic Strength Development

1. Continue to implement miometric jumps and throws.

2. Begin to prepare athlete's body to withstand and utilize eccentric forces by prescribing isometric "landing" activities.

- (Stiffness Development)
How does Stride Length Relate to Sprint Ability?
- Classically speaking.......Maximum speed may be improved by increasing stride length or stride frequency (Kryolainen, Komi, & Bell 1999; Luhtanen & Komi 1978)....however.....

- At top speed, sprinters take longer strides than their slower counterparts (Armstrong et al., 1983)....a display of vertical force production (Weyand et al., 2006).

- A
result
of proper training.
Bibliography
1. Bruggemann, & Glad. Time analysis of the sprint events. In: Scientific Research Project at the Games of the XXIV Olympiad-Seoul 1988. G. Bruggemann and B. Glad, eds. Monaco: International Athletic Foundation, 11-89, 1990.
2. Coh, Colja, Dolenec, Stuhec, Ljubljani, and Slovenia. Correlation of kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the maximal velocity sprinting stride of female sprinters. ISBS Proceedings. 134-137, 1998.
3. Coh, Peharec, and Bacic. The sprint start: Biomechanical analysis of kinematic, dynamic, and electromyographic parameters. New Studies in Athletics. 22(3), 29-38, 2007.
4. Corn, and Knudson. Effect of elastic-cord towing on the kinematic of the acceleration phase of sprinting. J Strength Cond. 17(1), 72-75, 2003.
5. Cronin, Ogden, Lawton, and Brughelli. Does increasing maximal strength improve sprint running performance? J Strength Cond. 29(3), 86-95, 2007.
6. diPrampero, Fusi, Sepulcri, Morin, Belli, and Antonutto. Sprint Running: A new energetic approach. J Experimental Bio. 208, 2809-2816, 2005.
7. Hunter, Marshall, & McNair. Relationship between ground reaction force impulse and kinematics of sprint-running acceleration. J Appl Biomechanics, 21, 31-43, 2005.
8. Harridge, Bottinelli, Canepari, Pellegrino, Reggiani, Esbjornsson, Balsom, and Saltin. Sprint training, in vitro and in vivo muscle function, and myosin heavy chain expression. J Appl Physiol. ,442-449,1998.
9. Letzelter, Sauerwein, Burger. Resisted runs in speed development. Modern Athlete and Coach, 33, 7-12, 1995.
10. Lockie, Murphy, Spinks. Effects of resisted sled towing on sprint kinematics in field-sport athletes. JSCR, 17(4), 760-767, 2003.
11. Young, & Pryor. Resistance training for short sprints and maximum-speed sprints. Strength Cond J, 23(2), 7-13, 2001.
12. Weyand, Sternlight, Bellizzi, & Wright. Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements. J Appl Phys, 89, 1991-1999, 2000.
13. Weimann, & Tidow. Relative activity of hip and knee extensors in sprinting- Implications for training. New Studies in Athletics, 10(1), 29-49, 1995.
The acceleration of a sprinter is determined by 3 external forces:
A. Gravity
B. Wind
Factors related to Goal Attainment in Sprint Events
C. Ground Reaction Force
Why Wait for Velocity Work?
- Maximal velocity sprinting requires the production of high vertical GRF in a short stance time (Weyand et al. 2000).

- Therefore, "maximize" max velocity training by ensuring athlete is strong enough to produce high propulsive forces in a short time period.
= Controlled by Athlete
The 20m mark is critical as research has shown that elite sprinters achieve more than 80% of their maximum speed by this distance (Bruggemann et al, 1990).
Ground Reaction Forces
The force exerted by the ground on a body.
Manipulations to GRF can be made through biomechanics.

Biomechanics can be influenced by proper strength development and optimized physiological changes.
The Science of "Tempo"
Therefore.......Tempo can be used to maintain a higher level of training volume when a sprinter cannot partake in further volume increases through strength or speed training.
Miometric exercises provide athlete ability to maintain RFD during higher-volume training blocks.
"Brings the ground to the athlete", which:
Exercises should progress in nature of difficulty
.
THANK YOU!
1. Highlight "Absolute Strength" through lower VL of traditional force-producing exercises (e.g. squats).
A. Promote strength through clusters.
2. Begin to "converge" strength qualities through more complex exercises and training tools.
A. Proper exercise selection
B. Continued manipulation of VL
A. Wave-Loading
B. Complexes
3. Focus on higher RFD through:
Continue to prescribe low to moderate doses of extensive tempo in order to promote:
A: Maintenance of fitness qualities gained in previous phases of training.

B: Active Recovery: RPE/ Mood Status
1. As strength levels have matured and RFD is improving, the athlete is ready for more complex jumping.

2. Difficulty of jumps should progress based on athlete preparedness.

3. Possible for jumping to become more "pliometric" and mimic speeds and GCT of sprinting (e.g. speed bounding).
1. Maximize athlete velocity through more complex sprint training:
A. Acceleration Holds
B. Towing and Complexes
2. Begin to touch on introductory maximum velocity work.
A. Extend zone of acceleration portion of "Accel Hold"
B. Short Build-Up Fly-Ins, etc.
C. Flat Ground will ultimately provide higher velocities than incline.
3. Implement metabolic strategies that will improve long speed work.
A. Speed Endurance (longer accel holds)
B. Stacking
C. Broken Runs
1. Complete the refinement of acceleration abilities through the transition into flat-ground sprinting.
Strength Training
Work Capacity Development
A. Fly-In (Longer build and fly zones)
B. Race Modeling
C. Complete Sprints
D. Potentiation Complexes
3. Where applicable, mature an athlete's speed and special endurance qualities:
A. Complete Special Endurance runs (multiple reps)
B. Longer Acceleration "Holds"
2. Maintain accelerative abilities through:
A. Low Levels of Towing
B. Potentiation Complexes
C. Reactive Starts
Strength Training
1. Continue to mature RFD and explosive abilities through proper exercise selection.
A. Full weightlifting movements.
B. Partial Movements (Mid-Thigh Cleans, CMS)
C. Squat Jumps
2. Promote maximum output of each repetition through loading schemes.
A. Reduced Volume-Loads
B. Partial movements when necessary
A. Enhance recovery and heightened RFD through clusters.
B. "Potentiate" velocity of reps through wave-loading.
C. Prescribe complexes if and when necessary.
3. Ensure recovery and limited residual fatigue through:
Speed Development
1. Racing assists in maintenance of athlete's abilities.
2. Practice choices determined by athlete's energy status and competition schedule.
A. Longer breaks in competition schedule allows for velocity stimulation in practice.
B. Weekly competitions may require a coach to utilize practices that stimulate the athlete in ways racing does not.
C. If questions arise, the best approach is a conservative approach.
3. "Peaking" can occur through a fast-decay, which is stimulated through a sudden decrease in VL..... not intensity
Elastic Strength Development
1. Jumping and throwing exercises can be used to provide explosive-strength stimulus during this lowered-volume phase.

2. Carefully place higher-volumes of "pliometric" exercises on days further away from competition as to promote recovery and adapatation.

3. Revisit "miometric" exercises to promote higher RFD through limited muscle damage.
Restorative Maintenance
Prescribe lowered doses of extensive tempo to promote active recovery and mood status.
Removing tempo volume near taper will allow for a sudden decrease in overall volume-load.
Performance in sprint events is based on an athlete's:
1. Ability to accelerate
2. Magnitude of maximum velocity
3. Ability to maintain velocity against fatigue.
Ross, Leveritt, & Rick 2001
Potential Benefits of Proper Speed Development
1. More efficient movement through temporal sequencing.

2. Increased Nerve Conduction Velocity.

3. Altered motor unit recruitment strategies.

4. Increased ability to maintain muscle recruitment.
Ross et al. 2001
1. Introduce extensive aerobic training.
2. Partake in "intensive" aerobic conditioning to serve as a bridge into special endurance work (if applicable).
A. Typically prescribed as 60-75% of athlete's PB of given distance.
B. Recommended for promotion of active recovery.


C. Optimizes body composition.
D. Promotes chronic physiological changes through increased mitochondrial and capillary density.
3. Prescribe additional mid-section work to improve posture.
A. Commonly prescribed as 75-85% of athlete's PB of given distance.
B. Potential benefits include lactate tolerance and other metabolic improvements.
Internal investigations have shown that strength athletes performing extensive tempo on "low" days report improved mood status and lower rates of perceived exertion during next "high" session.
- Recovery periods between speed and strength training have been recommended to "ideally" last 48hrs (Sleivert, Backus, & Wenger, 1995)

As a result of:
1. Decreased electrical excitability.
2. Increased neuromuscular damage (especially in IIx fibers)
Training programs that emphasize daily exposure to high intensity
MAY
decrease neural abilities.... (e.g. decreased axon diameter, and myelination).
Andersson et al. 1957; Ross, 2001; Roy, 1983
1. Maximum velocity sprinting requires high propulsive forces in a short amount of time.

2. The SSC contributes to the propulsive force.

3. Weightlifting movements emphasizing the DKB utilize and ENHANCE the SSC.
Benefits of PROPER Weightlifting on Sprinting
Dr. Brad H. DeWeese
ETSU USOC Olympic Training Site
3. Focus in general prep is also on strength-endurance. Thus, fatigue from weight room can prevent athlete from hitting proper sprint positions. SO..................................
- More suitable measure is to ensure "load or incline" does not result in a change in velocity greater than 10% over a given distance (Jakalski 1998 & Lockie 2003).
General Fitness Development
30 Second Time Out!!!!
What is periodization???
Let's Start Here.........

What periodization is not.
1. Linear
2. Non-linear
3. Flexible
4. Concurrent
5. Conjugated
6. Reverse

So what is periodization?
If they are not periodization, what are they?
Programming Philosophies that attempt to answer the call of periodization tenants.
The Who/ What/ When of Periodization
The constructs of modern periodization can be traced back to key contributors within competitive sport.
The objective of periodization has always been to require
discernment in the planning process
.

Periodization does not advocate for a specific training theory; rather, it should be the
foundation of all sound training
plans.
A Flawed Opposition
1. Common arguments used by critics of periodization are......
(a) Research has failed to provide evidence that periodized programs are successful.

(b) Periodization models fail to adapt to individual responses to training.

(c) Periodization methodologies and guidelines are too simplistic for a real-world "dynamic system"
2. HOWEVER, these "researchers" are not opposing periodization.
They are arguing against......
(a) Program Philosophies
(b) Planning Choices or lack thereof
Revising the Definition of Periodization
1. While lengthy, the objective is to
IMPLICITLY STATE
what periodization actually includes.

2. Further, the aim of this definition is to ask future training models to encompass these requisites which allow for optimized training to occur at the individual level.
The strategic manipulation of an athlete's preparedness through the employment of
sequenced training phases
defined by cycles and stages of workload.

These workloads are varied in order to facilitate the
integration of planned programming tactics
that will harmonize the relationship between training-induced fatigue and accommodation.

Further, the
process of balancing stress stimuli and recovery periods
should be based on advanced knowledge regarding the physiological, biochemical, and psychological principles related to human performance.

Thus, an
individual's response to training can more effectively be measured
and made apparent through the execution of a
comprehensive athlete-monitoring program
and ongoing scientific study".

DeWeese et al. 2013
Seamless Sequential Integration
Measuring an athlete's response to training bolsters the
periodization
process.

@DrBradDeWeese
Programming Nuances
Enhancing Adaptation
RECALL:
1. Adaptation is the improvement of preparedness as a result of proper recovery following a stress stimulus.
2. Adaptation requires exposing athlete to an overload stimulus.

3. Overload needs to be constant over time.... but not:
- increased in a constant "linear" manner;
- increased every training session.
4. Overload must be applied in a specific manner &
VARIED
.
Planned Variation
1. Promotes fatigue management.
2.
Promotes the development of a well-rounded athlete***
3. Can be done at macro and micro level
a. Quaddrennial
b. Annual Plan
c. Phases/ Blocks
d. Microcycles/ Weeks
e. Sessions
Variation and Preparedness
Why vary the load/intensity within a block/ week?
1. Variety of loads promote superior technique (Potts, 2009).

2. Variety of loads promotes superior increases in power.

3. Strength (1RM) can fluctuate within a week due to residual fatigue.

4. Allows athlete to express power/velocity at varying degrees within a specific task.
Case Study

1. National Team Skeleton Athlete
2. Male
3. 3x5 Set Rep Best 122kg
Results of Varying the Load
Setting the Load

Merging Modern Concern with Historical Principles
Part II
Auto Regulation
1. While VL is associated to fatigue management, load selection as it relates to acute training status is just as important.
2. Specifically, intensity (load on the bar) should be relative to the athlete's "
Energy Envelope
" during each training session.
3. Recall that accumulating fatigue may cause an athlete's 1RM to become less stable throughout a block/ week.
4. In addition, different athletes can produce varying repetitions at a given % of their 1RM due to physiological status.
5. As a result, a "set-rep" method is best as it compares "apples to apples" and allows the athlete to choose a work-set load that is appropriate for their given amount of fatigue.
Set Rep Best Model (2010)
How many reps could you perform (with proper technique)?
DeWeese, Williams, Haake, Stone
Before you get carried away on the strength conundrum.....
Strength training isn't the issue..... it is the process and design!
NOT
Non-specific hypertrophy / Low associates to sporting form
Abe, Kojima, Kearns, Yohena, Fukuda (2003)
Wakahara, Fukutani, Kawakami, Yanai (2013)
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