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Hekla, Iceland

One of Iceland's most active volcanoes, Hekla is located in the southwest region of the nation. With the most recent eruption being in 2000, many volocanologists believe it could erupt again soon.
by

Sarah Katz

on 3 May 2014

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Transcript of Hekla, Iceland

"Four main lava fields formed in the eruption of Hekla
2000. Two of them are small and located at the northern
extremity of the volcano and the other two, which are much
larger, were emplaced on the plains to the south and
southwest."
Using Google Earth, it is possible to map some of the most recent and extensive lava flows produced by Hekla. This gives us a rough estimate of the probable size of future flows.
Under the surface: The complex history of Helka
Hekla, Iceland
Sarah Katz
Iceland's active volcanism is geologically unique due to the island's location on a Mid-Ocean Ridge system (MOR) and directly over a hot spot.
Dynamic Iceland
Location
Getting a feel for Hekla:
http://www.panoramio.com/photo/4886555






geog.ucsb.edu/img/news/2010/1000px-Volcanic_system_of_Iceland-Map-en.png
Hekla is located in the southwest corner of Iceland, less than 50 miles from the capital and largest city in Iceland, Reykjavik.
maps.google.com
"Hekla is part of a volcanic ridge, 40 kilometres (25 mi) long. The most active part of this ridge, a
fissure
about 5.5 km (3.4 mi) long named Heklugjá, is considered to be the volcano Hekla proper."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla
Iceland is an island nation which straddles the North American and European plates. The island's surface is 103,000 sq. km (40,000 sq. miles) -- the same size as Kentucky, America's 37th largest state.
http://www.iceland.is/the-big-picture/quick-facts/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_and_territories_by_area
Eruption History:
Continued Eruptions
Iceland's Volcanoes:
Iceland boasts many volcanoes, though the volcanic system is also responsible for multiple underwater volcanoes in the ocean surrounding the nation.

Helka is a
stratovolcano
and typically releases
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
lavas during eruption. While half of the volcanoes in Iceland are stratovolcanoes, Helka's composition is unique; in a region with nearly uniform basaltic flows, it is the only volcano to produce andesitic flow. This suggests a difference in the levels of Si, Mg, and Fe between Hekla and the other Icelandic volcanoes, though the fine-grained nature of the rocks shows relatively uniform extrusive cooling is the norm.
http://www.volcano.si.edu/search_volcano_results.cfm
http://myweb.cwpost.liu.edu/vdivener/notes/Class_Ig_Rx_simpler.gif
Eruption History:
1585 Map
of Hekla

Hekla is a fairy
young and active volcano
. According to the Smithsonian Institute's Global Volcanism Program, its first known eruption occured 5850 BC and it continues to erupt regularly in modern times.

Around a third of Hekla's known eruptions were prehistoric; the first observed eruption came soon after the settlement of Iceland in October 1104 with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 5. To date, 23 eruptions have been observed.
http://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070&bgvn=1&rnum=region17&snum=ice_s&wvol=hekla&tab=1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla
Video:youtube.com/watch?v=xnO9y7TCcMA
Circular Frames contain information from sources including:

Prehistoric Eruptions:
In its history, Helka has been nothing if not consistent. Through Tephro-chronology, volcanologists have dated eruptions to a series of regular intervals.

http ://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Olaus_Magnus_-_On_Strange_Properties_of_Some_Mountains.jpg
During this period, there were six notable and extremely powerful eruptions.
Four of these eruptions ranked a VEI of 5 and two ranked VEI 4.

Immense clouds of ash and volcanic debris filled the skies, covering 80% of the nation.
Image:www.extremeiceland.is/images/Photos/hekla.jpg
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla
http://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla
http://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070
Image:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Eyjafjallaj%C3%B6kull_ash.svg
http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2011/06/06/article-1394503-0C6BB63B00000578-849_964x672.jpg
Perhaps even more astonishing is the extent to which Hekla has had an influence on northern weather

"During the last 7000 years
one third
of the volcanic ash deposited in Scandinavia, Germany, Ireland and the UK
originated from Hekla
."

wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla
After an abnormally long period of quiescence, (nearly 250 years), Hekla's first historic eruption in 1104 was nothing short of incredible. Ranking at a
VEI of 5
, extensive tephra falls blanketed over half the country.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla
http://i1.trekearth.com/photos/34694/hekla80eruption_3.jpg
http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/europe_west_asia/eruption_history.html
Following a period of dormancy, Hekla began erupting with more regularity at more frequent intervals.

Eruptions in the historic period have been recorded as occurring between 10 and 50 year intervals for the next few centuries.
volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070&bgvn=1&rnum=region17&snum=ice_s&wvol=hekla&tab=1
http://www.archaeology.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/471px-Krakatoa_eruption_lithograph2.jpg
Tephra Fall from the 1104 Eruption
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur.
Hekla, A Notorious Volcano
, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 12-13.
Following the infamous 1104 eruption the next three eruptions were generally small, occurring in 1158, 1206, and 1222.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla#1104_.28H1.29
http://thegeosphere.pbworks.com/f/hekla2.jpg
Hekla's fifth historic eruption occurred in 1300 and was of a much larger scale, VEI 4. It produced a massive tephra fall which covered 30,000 sq km and lava flow that covered .5 sq km.
The flow was andesitic, containing ~56-64% silica. It's explosiveness and quantity of tephra caused damage to settlements and probably led to the deaths of 500 Icelanders the following winter because of food loss.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 14
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla#1104_.28H1.29
http://www.skimountaineer.com/ROF/Beyond/Hekla/HeklaMap.jpg
Poorly documented eruptions continued in 1341, 1389, 1510, 1597, and 1636.
Perhaps the most interesting reports from this period was that of a man being killed 40 km west of Hekla in the town of Vordufell by "unusually violent, hurling stones" during the 1510 eruption.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur.
Hekla, A Notorious Volcano
, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 14-15.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla#1104_.28H1.29
1693: Prolonged activity lasting at least 7 months initially created vast
tephra
deposits which destroyed a number of settlements followed by extensive lava flows. VEI: 4
"The initial phase was very violent and the production of tephra during the first hour was about 60,000 cubic meters per second...desol-ating 8 farms."
"Salmon and trout died in lakes and rivers, ptarmigan died in large numbers, and the livestock was seriously affected by fluoride poisoning."
The extent of the lava flows is unknown though ash was deposited in Norway.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 15-16.
http://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 15.
http://anti-establishment.com/store/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/product-Fluoride-Poison-white.jpg
1693 Continued
1766: The was the longest historic eruption of Hekla, lasting just over 2 years. VEI: 4.


Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 15.
http://planets.agu.org/images/articles/kieffer/Sue-with-volcanic-bomb.jpg.
http://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070
The tephra deposits were the massive, and farms 15-20 km away experienced bombs with a diameter of half a meter.
Similar to the 1693 eruption, 1766 saw massive damage to wildlife and livestock in the form of fluoride poisoning.

Additionally, flooding was observed when the glacier at the summit of the volcano melted due to the eruption.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 15.
http://www.oocities.org/heartland/woods/4013/Photos/Image8.jpg.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 15, 17-18.
http://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070
1845: A 4 hour tephra fall with deposits of 20,000 cubic meters per second began the 7 month eruption which also produced
dark ash
,
flooding
from glacial melt, and
lava flows
. VEI: 4
Between 1845 and the next large eruption, two smaller eruptions occurred at Hekla.
1878: 3 months
VEI: 2

1913: 2 months
VEI: 2
http://www.photoguide.cz/iceland-images/hekla-vecer.jpg.
http://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070
1947: The long awaited eruption lasted a year and was a VEI: 4 at its height exhibiting
Plinian style
eruptive characteristics. The
plume
rose to be
30 km
high and the volcano spewed 75,000 cubic meters per second of tephra at its peak. It is believed that "in the initial phase...180 million cubic meters" of debris was expelled.
Along the fissure on Hekla's ridge, many craters were active, but later the eruption was channeled to
two craters
: Summit Crater and Shoulder Crater
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 21, 37.
Initial ejected material from Hekla was 63-61% silica and was a
dacite-rhyolite
composition. Soon the composition was reduced to 57-56% silicious material which is within the range of dacite.

Though Hekla initially produced felsic material, most of the material was andesite near the end of the eruption basalt flows formed pahoehoe and a-a lavas with a 55-54% silica content.
Lava flows were also a significant part of the eruption and by the end of the first day, 15 square km were covered. As the eruption continued, lava flows decreased in volume and affected area. Ultimately around 800 million cubic meters of lava covered an area of 40 square km.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur.
Hekla, A Notorious Volcano
, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 37-38.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_YIMwQ4c1n5w/S6qP0nkgS9I/AAAAAAAAALo/-tViB3Ypqag/s320/blog%2B19%2BHelka%2Belsta%2Bljosmynd%2B1947.jpg.
Hekla
G. F. Dutton
New England Review (1978-1982), Vol. 2, No. 3 (Spring, 1980), p. 370
Published by: Middlebury College Publications
Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40355301
http://media-cache-ec0.pinimg.com/736x/b5/5e/14/b55e144ac7590a9292afdc045ab65a68.jpg.
Iceland was historically a very superstitious nation, perhaps influenced by the powerful and inexplicable natural occurrences that early settlers observed. Though these mysteries have been somewhat explained by science, Icelandic mythology still has cultural importance
http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/04/c1/8e/f8/museum-of-icelandic-sorcery.jpg.
http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/oldroot/legends/iceland/iceland.html.
http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/1207/volcano_stefnisson_orig_960.jpg.
http://catalog.chaosium.com/images/CHA2025a.gif.
http://www.vancouversun.com/cms/binary/9317608.jpg.
http://images.hngn.com/data/images/full/18977/elves-in-iceland.jpg?w=600
The dramatic and barren landscape led some to imagine that great gods had once raged a war in Iceland, cutting and blasting the landscape into its current form.
Trolls and elves also play a large part in Icelandic folklore and frequently occur in regards to Hekla. Along with witches, these evil creatures inhabit the mountain and cause calamity.
http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/oldroot/legends/iceland/iceland.html

In addition to the mystical folklore surrounding Hekla, Christians believed that the volcano was the doorway to purgatory or hell.
The screams of lava bombs across the sky were similarly interpreted as the cries of souls as they were ejected from the volcano. Lava monsters, such as the one shown above, also confirmed their suspicions.
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-bMslkpXeOQo/T5Ydag-N7cI/AAAAAAAAAjk/MljyPthPpUw/s1600/KronosFinal.jpg.
http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/oldroot/legends/iceland/iceland.html
Though Hekla had a notorious reputation, it was also a source of inspiration for many artists and authors in Iceland and abroad.

In 1961, Jón Leifs composed a piece about Hekla which is unusually loud and boisterous for classical music.
The reputation of the volcano was formed very early in the history of Iceland, as one of it's largest eruptions occurred in 1104, mere years after the settlement of the island began.











Damage was widespread and the entire county was covered in ash and pumice from the eruption. From the records of this first eruption, we know that Hekla made a significant impression on new settlers.
http://uploads0.wikipaintings.org/images/asgrimur-jonsson/mt-hekla-1927.jpg.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/iceland-fire-and-ice/introduction/3022/
Sigurdur Thorarinsson, 1956:
"Great is the power of the Prince of Darkness. Now he has flung open that horrible inferno Eclafeld out of Hyslandia, where the souls of the damned in flames of eternal fire, never thence to return, except when from time to time Satan drags them from the glowing embers to cool them in the piercing chill of the polar ice enclosing that dreary island, lest they become too inured to the fires of Hell."
http://i1181.photobucket.com/albums/x424/nethryk/Volume%203/Iceland250Hekla12-3-48F285-SJonsson.jpg.
http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/oldroot/legends/iceland/iceland.html.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla on Fire. Munich: Hanns Reich Verlag, 1956.
Karen Harp, "Hekla" powerpoint
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Futfo0npTc0/UO7TpgeYlSI/AAAAAAACg_0/zcuoheG-bhU/s1600/Hekla+2.jpg.
http://www.hammerstrikesounds.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/GKS-1005-fol-380381738.jpg
https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=7KwmwKgvbbo
After its 1947 eruption, Hekla had a 23 year hiatus and resumed eruptions in 1970. From this time, the repose period has been about 10 years.
Hekla's next eruption will likely be a

strong VEI 3
eruption or a
small VEI 4
eruption. The past three eruption in 1980, 1991, and 2010 were all VEI 3 eruptions and had repose periods of approximately 10 years. If Hekla continues to erupt in this regular fashion, we can expect an eruption in the next few years. The
repose
time since the last eruption has been
14 years
, and the increased time means that more crystallization will have occurred, creating a more Si-rich initial eruption which would
increase the explosivity
of any eruption. Hekla is still a very active volcano and the more time that passes until the next eruption will only lead to an increase in material volume and the level of explosiveness that we can expect to see.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla.
http://s3.reutersmedia.net/resources/r/?m=02&d=20100419&t=2&i=94439283&w=580&fh=&fw=&ll=&pl=&r=2010-04-19T211822Z_01_BTRE63I1I7K00_RTROPTP_0_VOLCANO
Eruption Impacts: Hekla's extreme isolation mean that few people or settlements are in direct danger from an eruption. Therefore, the
two
main concerns are :
1. Effect of Ash on Air Travel
2. Potential for lava flows to dam rivers, increasing flood potential
Morales, Jorge Eduardo Montalvo, "Hazard Assessment and Risk Mitigation for Tourists at Hekla Volcano, South Iceland," (PhD diss. Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Iceland, 2010), 19-35.
http://media.nola.com/news_impact/photo/iceland-volcano-cancellationsjpg-6b57f84053511193_large.jpg..
http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Sport/Pix/pictures/2011/5/24/1306238668408/Plane-flies-past-the-Grim-007.jpg.
Hazard Maps and Plans for future Hekla Eruptions
Hekla seen in Google Earth
Ash Fall:
Significant ash fall would be expected in Hekla's next eruption. Measurable amounts would be deposited across the country and traces could possibly be found in Northern and Western Europe
Ash Fall Predictions:
Rational behind my prediction:
This map represents a worst case scenario and is directly related to the tephra deposition of the 1104 eruption as recorded by Thorar-
insson following his extensive
field work. Since this is one of the
largst eruptions Hekla has seen,
it seems a reasonable basis when
thinking of the volcano's possible
maximum effect.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 12-13.
Air Travel:
As seen in the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull,volcanic eruptions in Iceland can have dramatic effect on
air travel
, particularly ash over Europe. This is one of the
major hazards
associate with Hekla's next eruption.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b1/Eyjafjallaj%C3%B6kull_volcanic_ash_composite.png.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_eruptions_of_Eyjafjallaj%C3%B6kull.
Ash cloud of Eyjafjallajökull, 2010
Eyjafjallajökull was a VEI 4 eruption, which is comparable to the prediction for the intensity of Hekla's next eruption. Following similar wind patterns, we could expect to see a repeat of the 2010 ash cloud
Interpretation of no-fly region as a result of a VEI 4 eruption
Such an eruption can result in significant economic loss of profits and dangers when operating airplanes.

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/47665000/gif/_47665760_04_19.04_0600_466.gif.
Eyjafjallajökull 2010:
Joe with the flow
Lava flows are also
a hazard at Hekla.
Though no loss of
life or property
would likely be
caused directly by
lava flows, there is
concern that a flow could dam the adjacent river; when the dam breaks, there is a fear that downstream towns and roads could be wiped out.
http://www.oocities.org/drnkonrum/hekla/images/HeklaMap.jpg.
Morales, Jorge Eduardo Montalvo, "Hazard Assessment and Risk Mitigation for Tourists at Hekla Volcano, South Iceland," PhD diss. Faculty of Earth Sciences
University of Iceland, 2010), 19-35. (https://notendur.hi.is//~mtg/nemritg/JM-MPaed_2010.pdf)
Documented Lava Flows from Hekla
http://classes.colgate.edu/S08/GEOL220/mcrackel/brianheklaflow.jpg.
View North from Hekla's Sumit
River
Flow Path
Though there is no evidence that that flows have dammed the river in the past, a long term eruption producing significant flows could produce this hazard.
Höskuldsson, Ármann, et al., "The millennium eruption of Hekla in February 2000," Bulletin Volcanology, (2007) 70:169.
http://theworldsbestever.s3.amazonaws.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/mount-hekla-volcano-2014.jpg.
In the past 50 years, Hekla has had 4 major eruptions.
1970:
The abnormally long repose period the Hekla had experienced caused some people to believe that the volcano had become dormant. Though many questioned Hekla's activity, locals reported snow melt on the summit of the volcano weeks and even months prior to the eruption.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 39-40.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla#1104_.28H1.29
http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/05/1c/6b/10/guesthouse-nonni.jpg.
The eruption began at 9:30 pm on May 5th and lasted 2 months.
Initially, most residents close to Hekla became aware of the eruption because of the pumice that began to fall at their homes.
Though Hekla is a volcano with a
fissure system, eruptions in which
material was expelled from mult-
iple sources was not easily visible
and very few of these eruptions
have been observed. The 1970
eruption is interesting because
there were 3 active southwestern
craters at the beginning of the
eruption, though one was record-
ed as being much larger than the
others.

During the course of the first day, another fissure formed and produced a lava fountain throwing materials up to 300 m. Multiple fissures also began to open along the slopes of Hekla.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 39-42.
http://www.volcanoadventures.com/images/lava-fountain.jpg.
Tephra:
Lava Flows:
The maximum column height was reported as 53,000 m. The rate of tephra fall in the first 2 hours of eruption was 10,000 meters cubed per second. Tephra mainly fell to the northwest of the volcano.


200 million cubic meters of lava were erupted covering a surface area of 18.5 square meters. By the middle of the second week Hekla had "
17 lava fountains
, each 20–50 m in height. "
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 55, 60.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla#1104_.28H1.29
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. Hekla, A Notorious Volcano, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 55.
http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/media-live/photos/000/444/overrides/travel-cultures-volcano-tourism-kilauea_44454_600x450.jpg.
Hekla was a popular tourist destination during this time and spectators "sat there for hours spellbound by the firework displays over the craters and the pouring rivers of lava...in many places car tracks could be seen disappearing beneath the new lava."
The next Hekla eruption began in fall 1980 and continued for 3 days. In spring 1981, Hekla erupted again, this time for 7 days in what many believe was a continuation of the 1980 eruption.








These eruptions had extremely short repose periods and were only VEI 3 and 2 respectively. Both were minor eruptions in both their effect and duration.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla#1104_.28H1.29
http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070
http://farm1.staticflickr.com/154/354128709_30ac62bc80_o.jpg.
1991 showed renewed activity and a VEI eruption of 3. The initial composition of material erupted was 54% Si, making it an andesitic composition.

Like the 1970 eruption,
multiple fissures
opened initially before a
single crater
became dominant.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla#1104_.28H1.29
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Hekla_and_gate.jpg.
The 2 month eruption ultimately produced .15 cubic km of lava and tephra on the order of 20 million cubic meters.
2000!
2013 Activity:
In 2013, there were some predictions that Hekla would erupt in the near future. From March 10-26, increased seismicity had been recorded coming from Hekla. With its
http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Hekla_slopes_june_2005.jpg.
short warning period before eruptions, it was under diligent observance. Though no eruption occurred, it reminded many people that following recent repose period patterns, the volcano is "overdue" for an eruption.
2014: Possible eruption was forecasted for Hekla earlier this year as scientists claimed that the magma chamber sourcing the volcano was nearly full and eruption could be possible.
http://icelandreview.com/news/2014/03/17/hekla-volcano-could-erupt-soon
Video: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=IiE0m4nvAUk
In the past weeks, however, these reports have decreased.
Pretty bad video about Hekla 2014
1100 BCE ± 50 years
1550 BCE (?)
2310 BCE ± 20 years
4110 BCE ± 100 years
4700 BCE (?)
5150 BCE (?)
Bibliography of Academic articles used: (this is all already included in the relevant slides)(photo documentation/non-academic sources on slides)
Just in case you really couldn't get enough of Iceland
PS. I watched all of this video...no shame
https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=8A7woRoVwyM
I think the dangers of the country (ie Hekla) force the people to be extra resilient... and beefy
https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=M449ReGqRJw
Hekla's most
recent eruption
was in 2000, and was the first eruption in which decent footage of the volcano was captured.
Some good footage of the ash cloud, but dialogue is in Icelandic.
https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=WF_OqMJ5kE0
https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=OvuUNV_ba80
Amateur footage, but some decent views of mountainside. And good music.
Mainly in Icelandic, but some good views of the flanks.
https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=dlol6gOYQZc
A tour video, but shows the effort of summiting Hekla and winter conditions. Also, spectacular music.
https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=PZcEtVq9wRg
(please don't watch all these videos for your sake)
What could you see at Hekla?
Note, these pictures were taken in Iceland, but not at Hekla. They represent volcanic features of Iceland which are similar to those at Hekla.
Columnar features from lava flows
Vesiculated primary materials (note that these were recovered in a beach setting and were eroded)
Fine, dark ash; primary material; tephra deposits
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekla
The eruption occurred from Feb. 26-March 8, 2000.
Höskuldsson, Ármann, Níels Óskarsson, Rikke Pedersen, Karl Grönvold, Kristín Vogfjörð, Rósa Ólafsdóttir, "The Millennium Eruption of Hekla in February 2000," Bulletin Volcanology, (2007) 70:169-182.
Leadbetter, Susan J., Hort, Matthew C., "Volcanic Ash Hazard Climatology for an Eruption of Hekla Volcano, Iceland," Jouranal of Volcanology and Geothermal Reasearch, 199 (2011) 230-241.
Morales, Jorge Eduardo Montalvo, "Hazard Assessment and Risk Mitigation for Tourists at Hekla Volcano, South Iceland," PhD diss. Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Iceland, 2010), 1-70. (https://notendur.hi.is//~mtg/nemritg/JM-MPaed_2010.pdf)
Soolsalu H, Einarsson P, Porbjarnardottir B. "Seismic activity related to the 2000 eruption of the Hekla Volcano, Iceland," Bulletin of Volcanology, Nov. 1, 2005; 68(1): 21-36.
Thorarinsson, Sigurdur.
Hekla, A Notorious Volcano
, Almenna Bokafelagid Publishing, Reykjavik, 1970: 12-13.
--
The Eruption of Hekla 1947-1948
, Visindafelag Islendinga Societas Scientiarum Islandica, v. 2, no. 1-2.
Höskuldsson, Ármann, et al., "The Millennium Eruption of Hekla in February 2000," Bulletin of Volcanology, (2007) 70: 169.
http://s1.ibtimes.com/sites/www.ibtimes.com/files/styles/v2_article_large/public/2011/07/07/125916-hekla-volcano-iceland.jpg.
The eruption began as a fissure eruption with 5 segments.
The Eruption Produced:
Basaltic-Andesite
material (55.5% silica)
Several small pyroclastic flows
12 km plume within 30 minutes of eruption
A'a type lava
Lava flows (mainly to the south)
Shallow earthquakes ~1.5 hrs before eruption
Minor ground deformation
Höskuldsson, Ármann, et al., "The Millennium Eruption of Hekla in February 2000," Bulletin of Volcanology, (2007) 70.
Ash Fall: The 2000 eruption produced one of the smallest amounts of tephra from any of Hekla's eruptions.
The fissure was 6.6 km long and extended from the southwest to the northwest, consistent with Hekla's historic patterns.
Höskuldsson, Ármann, et al., "The Millennium Eruption of Hekla in February 2000," Bulletin of Volcanology, (2007) 70.
Höskuldsson, Ármann, et al., "The Millennium Eruption of Hekla in February 2000," Bulletin of Volcanology, (2007) 70.
Further information about Hekla:
General Information about Hekla and other volcanoes: http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=372070.
Basic Hekla Information: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/iceland-fire-and-ice/additional-web-and-print-resources/3026/.
Volcanic monitoring network in Iceland: http://futurevolc.hi.is/node/18
Up to date strain information at Hekla: http://hraun.vedur.is/ja/strain/1sec/index.html
Icelandic Meteorologic Office Reports: http://en.vedur.is/earthquakes-and-volcanism/reports-and-publications/
2000 Eruption I.M.O. Data: http://hraun.vedur.is/ja/englishweb/heklanews.html#strain
Other Academic Articles:
Ofeigsson, Benedikt G., Hooper, Andrew; Sigmundsson Freysteinn, Sturkell, Erik, Grapenthin, Ronni, "Deep Magma Storage as Hekla Volcano, Iceland, Revealed by InSAR time Series Analysis," Journal of Geophysical Research 2011, vol 116: 1-15.
Soosalu H. "Seismic Activity Related To The 1991 Hekla Eruption, Iceland," Finland: University of Helsinki : Helsinki, Finland; 2004.
Soosalu H, Einarsson P. "Earthquake activity related to the 1991 eruption of the Hekla Volcano, Iceland,"
Bulletin Of Volcanology,
January 1, 2002;63(8):536-544.
--"Seismic characteristics of Hekla Volcano and its surroundings, Iceland,"
Joekull,
January 1, 2005;55:87-106.
--"Seismic constraints on magma chambers at Hekla and Torfajokull Volcanoes, Iceland,"
Bulletin Of Volcanology ,
January 1, 2004;66(3):276-286.
--"Seismicity around the Hekla and Torfajokull volcanoes, Iceland, during a volcanically quiet period, 1991-1995,"
Bulletin Of Volcanology,
January 1, 1997;59(1):36-48.
Soosalu H, Einarsson P, Jakobsdottir S. "Volcanic tremor related to the 1991 eruption of the Hekla Volcano, Iceland,"
Bulletin Of Volcanology,
January 1, 2003;65(8):562-577.
Soosalu H, Einarsson P, Porbjarnardottir B. "Seismic activity related to the 2000 eruption of the Hekla Volcano, Iceland,"
Bulletin Of Volcanology
. November 1, 2005;68(1):21-36.
"Continuous monitoring of the crustal deformation of Hekla is today performed by five continuously recording borehole strainmeters, operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office."
http://hraun.vedur.is/ja/strain/1sec/hek_s1a_1s.png.
Futurevolc, "Present day in-situ monitoring networks of volcanic and seismic hazards," http://futurevolc.hi.is/node/18, accessed May 1, 2014.
Futurevolc, "Deformation studies at Hekla Volcano," http://earthice.hi.is/deformation_studies_hekla_volcano, accessed May 1. 2014
Futurevolc, "Present day in-situ monitoring networks of volcanic and seismic hazards," http://futurevolc.hi.is/node/18, accessed May 1, 2014.
Monitoring is carried out by the Icelandic Meteorologic Office with help from the University of Iceland's Institute of Earth Sciences. Monitoring includes:
Seismicity
GPS data
Strain results
Infrasound
Hydrological monitoring
Early Warning Shake Maps
Current Monitoring
Link to a webcam of Hekla: http://www.livefromiceland.is/webcams/hekla/
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/Cairns_and_hekla.jpg.
Leadbetter, Susan J., Hort, Matthew C., "Volcanic Ash Hazard Climatology for an Eruption of Hekla Volcano, Iceland," Jouranal of Volcanology and Geothermal Reasearch, 199 (2011) 230-241.
Seismic Observations:
Hekla typically gives little notice before eruptions; 2000 saw a swarm of earthquakes 80 minutes prior to eruption and "low-frequency volcanic tremors that continued throughout the eruption."
http://hraun.vedur.is/ja/englishweb/heklanews.html#strain.
Soolsalu H, Einarsson P, Porbjarnardottir B. "Seismic activity related to the 2000 eruption of the Hekla Volcano, Iceland," Bulletin Of Volcanology, Nov. 1, 2005; 68(1): 21-36.
Tremor recorded at Haukadalur (10 km west of Hekla) during the 2000 eruption
See slide 84 for external links)
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