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Nitric Oxide

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Robert Svetlichniy

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of Nitric Oxide

Nitric Oxide (NO)
Introduction to Nitric Oxide
Also known as nitrogen monoxide or nitrogen oxide.
It is a by-product of combustion of substances in the air.
In the human body, it is an important cellular signaling molecule.
It is a powerful vasodilator, it widens the blood vessels.
Important in protecting organs, such as the liver from ischemic damage, ischemia is damaged or dysfunctional blood vessels.
Nitric oxide (NO) should not be confused with nitric dioxide (NO2) a brown toxic gas, though when exposed to oxygen nitric oxide will oxidise and become nitric dioxide.
It is a colorless gas.
Preparation and Reactions
Preparation

2 NaNO2 + 2 FeSO4 + 3 H2SO4 → Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 NaHSO4 + 2 H2O + 2 NO

8 HNO3 + 3 Cu → 3 Cu(NO3)2 + 4 H2O + 2 NO

These are the two most common ways of producing nitric oxide in the laboratory.
Because formation of nitric oxide is endothermic, its synthesis requires elevated temperatures above 1000 °C.


Reactions

2 NO + O2 → 2 NO2

4 NO + O2 + 2 H2O → 4 HNO2

2 NO + Cl2 → 2 NOCl

Nitric oxide reacts with all transition metals to give complexes called metal nitrosyls.
Environmental Effects
Nitric oxide in the air may convert to nitric acid, resulting in acid rain.
Important source of nutrition for plant life in the form of nitrates.
Nitric Oxide in the Body
Nitric oxide is useful in cell communication
Known to:
• help memory and behavior by transmitting information between nerve cells in the brain
• assist the immune system at fighting off bacteria and defending against tumors
• regulate blood pressure by dilating arteries
• reduce inflammation
• improve sleep quality
• increase your recognition of sense (i.e. smell)
• increase endurance and strength
• assist in gastric motility

How to Increase Nitric Oxide in Your Body
The most common way is through exercise, as you exercise your muscles need blood to supply oxygen, so the linings of your arteries release nitric oxide, this relaxes and widens the vessel wall, so that more blood can flow through.
Another way is through diet. Consuming nuts, fruits, meats and dairy will increase the amounts of L-arginine which directly produces nitric oxide and L-citrulline. L-citrulline is then recycled back into L-arginine. To protect the levels of L-arginine and nitric oxide in our bodies it is important to eat healthy foods and antioxidants.
Levels of nitric oxide can be also increased with supplements. Supplements of L-arginine and L-citrulline are available.
Nitric oxide may also be inhaled. It can help survival and recovery from paraquat poisoning, which produces lung tissue-damaging superoxide and hinders nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the metabolism.
Nitric oxide and L-arginine have no side effects if acquired naturally (working out and diet).
L-arginine may stimulate the release of insulin and other hormones.
Available in both cream and pill form.
Can be applied to skin to speed up healing and increase the blood in cold areas of the body.
Known to increase circulation in people who are suffering from diabetes.
The L-arginine supplement has side effects of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gout, blood abnormalities, allergies, airway inflammation, worsening of asthma, and low blood pressure.
Not enough is known about using L-arginine long-term in pregnancy or during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Is possibly safe when used on children, but only in small doses and when taken orally, high doses often result in death or other serious side effects.
Cost: $6-$45
Dose: from 500 mg to 20 g per day
This product is good for us but keep in mind that the natural way of acquiring L-arginine has no side effects.
L-Arginine as a Supplement
By Robert Svetlichniy
Bibliography
Information:

Clark, J. (2013). What is nitric oxide and how does it work? Nutrition Express. http://www.nutritionexpress.com/showarticle.aspx?articleid=286

L-Arginine. (2013). Amino Acid Studies. http://aminoacidstudies.org/l-arginine/

L-Arginine. (2013). WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-875-L-ARGININE.aspx?activeIngredientId=875&activeIngredientName=L-ARGININE

Photos:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitric_oxide

http://www.ypte.org.uk/environmental/acid-rain/1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant

http://www.iherb.com/Now-Foods-L-Arginine-500-mg-250-Capsules/359

What Else is Nitric Oxide Good For ?
Improving recovery after surgery. Taking L-arginine with ribonucleic acid (RNA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) before surgery or afterwards seems to help reduce the recovery time, reduce the number of infections, and improve wound healing after surgery.
Congestive heart failure. Taking L-arginine along with usual treatment seems to help eliminate extra fluids that are a problem in congestive heart failure. But taking L-arginine doesn’t always improve exercise tolerance or quality of life. L-arginine should not be used instead of the usual treatments ordered by a healthcare provider.
Chest pain associated with coronary artery disease (angina pectoris). Taking L-arginine seems to decrease symptoms and improve exercise tolerance and quality of life in people with angina. But L-arginine doesn’t seem to improve the disease itself.
Bladder inflammation. Taking L-arginine seems to improve symptoms, but it may take up to three months of treatment to see improvement.
Wasting and weight loss in people with HIV/AIDS, when used with hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) and glutamine. This combination seems to increase body weight, particularly lean body mass, and improve the immune system.
Improving kidney function in kidney transplant patients taking cyclosporine.
Preventing inflammation of the digestive tract in premature infants.
Cramping pain and weakness in the legs associated with blocked arteries (intermittent claudication).
2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic Acid, (2S)-2-Amino-5-{[amino (imino) methyl]amino}pentanoic Acid, Acide 2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoïque, Arg, Arginine, Arginine Ethyl Ester, Arginine Ethyl Ester Dihydrochloride, Arginine Ethyl Ester HCl, Arginine HCl, Arginine Hydrochloride, Di-Arginine Malate, Di-Arginine Orotate, Di-L-Arginine-L-Malate, Dl-Arginine, L-Arginina, L-Arginine Ethyl Ester Dichloride, L-Arginine HCl, L-Arginine Hexanoate, L-Arginine Hydrochloride, L-Arginine Ketoisocaproic Acid, L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate, L-Arginine Pyroglutamate, L-Arginine Taurinate, Malate de Di-Arginine, Orotate de Di-Arginine, R-Gene 10.
Other names:
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