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Transcript of Social Studies
maintains the balance of free and slave states in the Union Wilmot Proviso Missouri's admission would give the South the majority, Clay suggested Maine as a free and Missouri as a slave state. 36, 30'N, banned slavery north of this line Called for ban of slavery in the lands won from the Mexican War. Congress passed the Wilmot Proviso in 1846, but the Senate defeated it. Propossed by David Wilmot Creation of Free-Soil Party 1848, anti-slavery members of both parties met in Buffalo, New York. The Free Soil Party was founded at this meeting. Free Soilers wanted to end slavery in the South. Some wanted to end it completely Compromise of 1850 Admits California as a free state Settles Texas/New Mexico broder dispute Includes Fugitive Slave Act. Bans slave trade in Washington D.C. Upholds popular sovereignty in New Mexico and utah Popular sovereignty is the decision by the people. Fugitive Slave Act Created in 1850, required all citizens to catch runaway slaves. People who let fugitives escape could be finded $1000 and be put into prisson Suspects were not allowed a trial. Judges received $10 for sending an accused runaway to the South, but only $5 for setting someone free. Publish of Uncle Tom's Cabin Anti -Slavery book. Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Tom= Main character, African-American, noted for his kindness Simon Legree= Tom's master, who brutally whips him to death, after Tom will not disclose information about the whereabouts of Eliza, a fugitive slave. This book was popular in the North. South, obviously, hated it. After this book, Congress could no longer ignore the problem of slavery. Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 bill proposed by Stephen Douglas, to set up a government for the Nebraska territory. This territory stretched from Texas north to Canada, and from Missouri west to the Rockies. This new territory would be divided into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. The settlers living in each new territory would decide by popular sovereingnty whether or not the state would be a slave or a free state. Border Ruffian actions Proslavery settlers that wanted to make sure that antisalvery forces did not overrun the territory Hundreds of Boerder Rufians crossed into Kansas in 1855 to vote against slavery illegaly in that territory. In 1856, a band of proslavery people attacked houses and smashed the press of a Free Soil Newspaper In response, John Brown, and some other free soilers, killed 5 proslavery settlers. Violence in the Senate Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was the leading abolitionist senator. He spoke out against Andrew Butler. Later , Butler's nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks, marched into the senate chamber and beat Sumner with a heavy cane. In response hundreds of people sent heavy canes to Brooks, showing there support. Dred Scott v. Stanford In 1857, Dred Scott filed a lawsuit that claimed he was a freeman, because, once, his master had brought him to a free state, then later his master died in a slave state. Dred Scott was an African American Stanford claimed that since he was a slave, he could not even file a lawsuit. This angered abolitionist and only helped spark the Civil War. So Dred Scott was considered property. The Court also ruled that Congress did not have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory. Birth of Republican party A group of Free Soilers, northern Democrats, and anti-slavery Whigs, gathered in Michigan in 1854. These became the first Republican. There main goal was to keep out slavery in the western territories. The Republicans selected John C. Fremont as there presidential candidate He was the leader of the Bear Flag Republic and helped make California a free state. Lincoln-Douglas Debate Debate by Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas. They debated the topic of slavery. Abraham Lincoln was against slavery, but he was not an abolitionist Stephen Duglas was for popular sovereignty. Since slavery was a moral, social and political wrong, Lincoln, Douglas and other Americans should not treat it as an unimportant question. Harper's Ferry 1859, the radical abolitionist John Brown led a group of 21 men in a raid on the arsenal. Five of the men were black: three free blacks, one a freed slave and one a fugitive slave. During this time assisting fugitive slaves was illegal under the Dred Scott decision. Brown attacked and captured several buildings; he hoped to use the captured weapons to initiate a slave uprising throughout the South. Were stopped by General Robert E. Lee Election of 1860 The “wedges of separation” caused by slavery split large Protestant sects into Northern and Southern branches and dissolved the Whig party. Most Southern Whigs joined the Democratic party, one of the few remaining, if shaky, nationwide institutions. The new Republican party, heir to the Free-Soil party and to the Liberty party, was a strictly Northern phenomenon. The crucial point was reached in the presidential election of 1860, in which the Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln, defeated three opponents—Stephen A. Douglas (Northern Democrat), John C. Breckinridge (Southern Democrat), and John Bell of the Constitutional Union party.
Lincoln's victory was the signal for the secession of South Carolina Lincoln won, but on the Southern Ballot, his name was not to be found except for in Virginia Secession of 1860 In the presidential election of 1860, the Republican Party, led by Abraham Lincoln, had campaigned against the expansion of slavery beyond the states in which it already existed. The Republican victory in that election resulted in seven Southern states declaring their secession from the Union even before Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861. Both the outgoing administration of President James Buchanan, and Lincoln's incoming administration rejected the legality of secession, considering it rebellion. Was very gradual. Ft. Sumter Following declarations of secession by seven Southern states, South Carolina demanded that the U.S. army abandon Fort Sumter, which was refused.
When the ultimatum deadline passed, an artillery barrage ensued, lasting until the fort was surrendered. Once the Confederates had fired, full-scale war quickly followed.
Start of The Civil War.