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Transcript of Differentiation Presentation
Carol Ann Tomlinson states, "teachers off different approaches to WHAT students learn, HOW they learn it, and how they DEMONSTRATE WHAT THEY'VE LEARNED"(2001). Let's begin, shall we? Keep in mind that this presentation only provides some ideas and strategies for differentiation. There is a plethora of literature and online resources that you can explore for more ideas! You differentiate more than you know. In some cases this presentation is going to be a big pat on the back.
The OBJECTIVE of this presentation is to introduce the basic concepts of differentiation to you and provide you with some ideas to use in the classroom. WHAT can be differentiated? When thinking about differentiation, you can consider differentiating 3 things:
CONTENT, PROCESS, and PRODUCT Invention
Letter to Editor
Oral Report Review
Science Fair Project
Written Report Outline
Research Report Diagram
Interview (written) Advertisement
Demonstration Product Options Here is a second reason: So, with that review of differentiation, what's with the iceberg background for this Prezi? Do you get the metaphor? If not, maybe you should check out the presentation again. http://utaah.washk12.org/differentiation/ Look around you. Who looks the same as you? Who has had the
same experiences as you? Who write the way you do, or organizes
themselves the way you do? It makes sense that since we are all
different, we require different ways of learning and practicing what
we've learned. Differentiating CONTENT Content is what is being taught. We can modify WHAT we teach or HOW we make it accessible to all students. Here are some strategies for differentiating CONTENT:
CONCEPT-BASED TEACHING - Rather than "covering" a unit and students ultimately forgetting much of the information because they never made sense of it, focus on the things students need to be able to do in order to access learning. What are the essential understandings for this unit?
CURRICULUM COMPACTING - This strategy was designed for the advanced students in the classroom. We often see them bored and losing interest in school because it's "easy" or because they already know it. Compacting the curriculum allows students to move at a pace that suits their abilities. When compacting, students who are considered for compacting are given an assessment. If the assessment shows that the students have already mastered the concepts, they are given more challenging material to extend their understanding. If there are any skills that are not mastered, the teacher needs to develop a plan for that student.
USING MATERIALS THAT ARE APPROPRIATELY LEVELED - There is a great range of learners in every class, so whenever we can use leveled materials we should, so all of the children can access the same content.
CONTRACTS - You can use contracts in many ways. Essentially, a contract sets up a plan for a student that they have agreed to stick to. Contracts also give students the ability to spend extra time in a weaker area during a subject where they are very strong. Contracts give students more responsibility for their learning while teachers are freed up to work individually or in small groups. Differentiating PROCESS The process is the time for students to make sense of what they learned by "playing" around with the ideas. Here are some strategies for differentiating PROCESS:
CUBING - Using a cube, name 6 demands which are prompts for activities for students to complete in relation to the content. Be creative with the cubes and the tasks that you assign. Remember, you can use more than one!
TIERED ACTIVITY - Students are working on the same content, but they are performing different tasks according to readiness and skills.
INTERACTIVE JOURNALS - Students communicate with the teacher through their journals. They write an entry and teachers respond with questions and comments. The teacher's responses are differentiated according to student ability, readiness, and interest. Differentiating PRODUCT Students demonstrate what they have learned through their products. When differentiating the PRODUCT, you have many options. You can differentiate:
A physical/kinesthetic product where students are using their bodies and moving around.
A visual product where students are illustrating their learning.
A written product where students are working independently and writing a variety of pieces to show what they know.
An auditory product where students are sharing their knowledge orally. Check out this list of many ways to differentiate products Pre-Assessment This is what you can do before you begin teaching a unit. There are two ways to focus your pre-assessments: GETTING TO KNOW YOUR LEARNERS
You can conduct a pre-assessment survey that will give you information regarding your students' interests, learning styles, multiple intelligence strengths and weaknesses, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and overall personality and student skills. GETTING TO KNOW YOUR STUDENTS' BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE AND READINESS
It is important to know the knowledge your students are coming with. This will help you target key concepts to focus on, motivate students by giving them a preview, identify the entry point for new learning, find the gaps that exist in background knowledge, and plan next steps and interventions. Conduct pre-assessments prior to teaching the unit, ideally 2 or 3 weeks before hand to give you time to plan the unit with the needs of your students in mind. Pre-assessments don't always have to look like quizzes or tests. Here are some suggestions by Carol Ann Tomlinson: Examples Of Pre-assessment Strategies:
1.Anticipation journals 13.Picture Interpretation
2.Concept Maps 14.Portfolio analysis
3.DRA/Running Records 15.Prediction
4.Drawing related to topic or content 16.Self-evaluations
5.Entrance or Exit cards 17.Standardized test information
6.Game activities 18.Student demonstrations and discussions
7.Guess Box 19.Student interviews
8.Informational surveys/Questionnaires 20.Student products and work samples
/Inventories 21.Table Top discussions
9.Initiating activities 22.Teacher observation/checklists
10.Interest survey 23.Teacher prepared pretests
11.KWL charts and other graphic organizers 24.Traditional tests
12.Open-ended Questioning 25.Writing prompts/samples or any Pre-writing
activity www.pps.k12.or.us/files/tag/Pre_Assessments.doc Here is a quick overview of Formative and Summative Assessments: People may have mixed feelings about formative assessments, but it's important to keep in mind that formative assessments come in many forms . The goal is to keep informed of your students to make sure they are learning in the best way for them. If this cartoon doesn't make sense to you, then Formative Assessment should. If you're feeling overwhelmed by differentiation or you don't know where to start, check out this list of suggestions: Get to know your students. Interview them, have them complete surveys or "All About Me" posters. Collect information that you can use to differentiate your lessons. Things like interests, best way to learn, favorite class activity, working alone or in partnerships or groups, etc.
Provide Homework options. You can integrate the Choice Board idea here or something similar where students are completing tasks that they can choose but are all focused on the same content.
Consider flexible grouping and seating in the classroom. It might be a good idea for you to take a survey about your classroom and instruction practices. Are there things that you can change that would make differentiation easier for you?
What are the strategies or activities that are most interesting to you? Start with those!
Use your grade level team to plan units, develop lessons and activities, and to think about your students and what their needs are. Creating groups across classrooms is another way to organize children and it keeps things interesting.
START SMALL! This tip allowed me to take a deep breath and relax. Differentiation is a way of thinking and teaching and it will take a lot to get into that habit if you're not already there, so start small and grow from there. Finally, use the TECHNOLOGY available to you at school! For some of you, technology increases your anxiety, but let's think about it. We have Mimios, Smartboards, laptops, an iPad cart, Mimio Votes, Projectors, and Cameras so we should use them! Technology spices up lessons, activities, and products that students create and you can find so many valuable resources FOR FREE! http://edudemic.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/21st_century_classroom.jpg Technology Ideas for the Differentiated Classroom: There are so many applications and websites that can be used in the classroom. I've listed a few, but I definitely recommend spending some time exploring your options online. FOR TEACHERS:
Prezi.com FOR STUDENTS:
kerpoof.com The list goes on
(and on) for
teachers and students!
As a mom, I am prepared for phone calls asking me to leave school to pick up my sick child. This one particular time that I had to leave school early, I learned later that evening that I would also miss the following day because my daughter had to stay home and I didn't have any options for a babysitter. My grade level team had a plan for math and with my absence I would've been behind a day. (We also just dealt with a report on "Time on Learning".) Looking for anything that could help me stick with my plans, I searched the applications on my iPad and found Screenchomp, which allowed me to record the math and writing lessons that I needed. My kids didn't fall behind and I was able to stay on schedule because those lessons could be accessed online and projected by the classroom Mimio. They were awkward, but I was able to teach my lessons and the kids were intrigued. This is definitely something I will do for future absences.
Teachers say that it is easier to be in school than to be out of school and have to write sub plans. Well, apps like Screenchomp can helpremove the sub plan pressure and allow you to keep on track when an unplanned absence occurs (and you get to record it as many times as you want if you don't get it right the first time, which is a luxury we don't have in class)! REFERENCES:
Chapman, C., King, R. (2012). Differentiated Assessment Strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to Differentiate in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. (2nd ed) Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Youtube.com An iPad Story: