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Ridaa Nowman

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of Mitosis

What happens during anaphase?

The centromeres are pulled apart and that makes the chromatids separate.
Now there are two groups of chromosomes, spindles, and centrioles on each half of the cell.
Before we start, lets get a few things straight.

What are chromosomes?
Chromosomes play a HUGE part in cell division.
They are like tiny little bundles of DNA.
They are the reason why we can separate DNA in cell division correctly.
DNA is the genetic information that we're dividing
That information is passed from one generation to the next.
Each daughter cell gets its own copy of the DNA.
What is mitosis?
Mitosis is the process of cell division.
You could call it mitosis, cell division,
the cell cycle.
What do I mean by division?
Cells pretty much duplicate all their genetic information, and then they basically split.
It's not as simple as it sounds, though!
What are daughter cells?
Once the cell is split into two, both are called daughter cells.
Prokaryotic Chromosomes
The chromosomes of prokaryotic cells are very simple and found in the cytoplasm.
Its pretty much just one big twisted strand in the cell's cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic Chromosomes
Eukaryotic chromosomes are a lot more complex.
They are located in the nucleus of the eukaryote.
Its starts out with DNA.
Then the DNA tightly coils around these little balls called histones.
The histones and the DNA coiled together are called nucleosomes.
Nucleosomes coiled together are called chromatins and........
chromatins make up chromosomes!

Cell Division for Eukaryotes
Prokaryotic Cell Cycle
In this cycle, cells grow, copy their DNA, and divide into two.
You could also call it binary fission because it is a type of asexual reproduction that happens mostly in prokaryotes.
Eukaryotic Cell Cycle

This cycle grows, copies DNA, and divides just like the prokaryotic cell cycle.
But this one is a bit more complex
It contains four phases
G1 phase
S phase
G2 phase
M phase

Interphase contains the G1, S, and G2 phase.
Interphase takes up the most time in the cell cycle.
G1 phase: Cells grow, make new proteins, and make new organelles.

S (synthesis) phase: Cell makes new DNA because chromosomes are duplicated.

G2 phase: Cell gets ready for mitosis by making organelles and molecules that the cell needs for it.
The next part is mitosis. Mitosis is made up of four parts. Mitosis is the first part of the M phase
What happens during prophase?

The chromosomes we duplicated in interphase, condense, and are able to be seen.
A spindle forms between the centrioles which are at opposite ends of the cell.
Once the spindle is formed, stands of DNA attach at the centromere.
Also, the nuclear envelope breaks down.
(don't worry this was the hardest part of mitosis, the rest is easy!)
What happens during metaphase?

The centromeres line up along the middle of the cell.
A spindle fiber of each side connects to each centromere.
What happens during telophase?

The spindle breaks off of the chromosomes.
Chromosomes are tangled back into chromatin and two nuclear envelopes reform.
Nucleus is there in each daughter cell.
This stage kind of looks like prophase except everything is separated into two.
The cell is ready to split at this stage.

What happens during Cytokinesis?

Cytokinesis is the actual splitting of the cell we've all been waiting for!
By splitting of the "cell" I mean the cytoplasm
It is the second part of the M phase.
Cytokinesis differs in plant and animal cells.
In animals
At this point, the cell is pretty long because there are two pairs of everything.
So near the center, the cell membrane comes inward. Over here, the cell looks like the number "8".
It keeps coming in until the cytoplasm "pinches" into two equal parts.
In plants
Its not that easy to pinch the cytoplasm in plant cells
That is because plants have a hard and sturdy cell wall that surrounds them.
So they build a cell plate between the two parts.
That cell plate grows and eventually divides it.
Then, the cell wall reforms around the daughter cells.
Important Structures you need to know
Where the chromatids join.
Duplicates of chromosomes
Organizes the spindle
Organizes the chromosomes.
Different forms of chromosomes
Chromosomes in long thin strands in interphase.
one part of the replicated chromosomes
Chromosome are two chromatids.
Also, when a bunch of chromatin condense, they turn into this.
By: Ridaa Nowman
9th Honors
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