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World War 1 Project
Transcript of World War 1 Project
By Allisa, Emily and Marivi
World War I Weaponry
After the initial battles of WW1, a deadlock developed as the opposing sides- the central powers and the Allies- couldn't gain much ground without many casualties. The line of fighting along the West, called the Western front, remained significantly similar during the remainder of the war.
The Battles of WW1
Trench: a long narrow ditch
Trench warfare is a type of land battle in which soldiers take cover in ditches in the ground which protect them the small air fire of their enemies, not including large scale bombs.
Battle of Verdun
Britain (colonies Australia and New Zealand), Turks, France
goal was to capture Constantinople and persuade the Balkans to join the allies
took place on the Gallipoli Peninsula, which forms a strait that maintained Russian access to Europe (Russians felt threatened and called for aid) between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916
deadlock of men, and Britain called its troops back in December
this campaign only achieved distraction of the Turks from Russia
significance-a great Ottoman victory and a Ally loss, draining forces and morale from the Allies, and maintaining Turkish participation in WW1
Battle of Gallipoli
Battle of the Somme
It was fought from July 1 to November 18 on 1916 on both sides of the river Somme in France.
the British were looking to distract Germany's attention from Verdun to provide relief.
the British suffered many losses due to unpreparedness.
Significance- it led to fighters being more prepared and having better strategies to deal with deeper German trenches.
the trenches were located very close to enemy trenches, so during the day movement was very restricted
if the soldiers weren't doing a task they were to be laying low, which lead to extreme boredom
"Stand to at Dusk" was carried out every dusk with the soldiers standing guard prepared for enemy attack
When it became dark, the soldiers were ordered to "stand down" and the mens job of re-supplying and maintenance would begin
sentry duty was a guard position to insure that no unauthorized person was trying to enter
falling asleep while on sentry duty was considered a serious offense with a death consequence
a battalion (large group of soldiers) was expected to serve in the front line and be prepared to fight
after, the soldiers were to help in support and then finally in reserve lines
after all this a period of rest was given to the soldiers
the trenches saw large numbers of deaths daily
large shell-bursts killed soldiers who were unprepared for the attack
the bursts sometimes buried the soldiers alive
"shell shock" became a well known term which was referred to as an actual physical injury to the nervous system, brought by exposure to such constant warfare and attacks
Infestation and sickness:
rats, lice and frogs infested the dirty trenches
the lice caused trench fever, a painful disease that happened suddenly with increasing pain and a high fever
patrols and raids both took place at night
for patrols, small groups of men crawled out of the trenches and moved forward on elbows and knees toward the German trenches
they had to cut through the barbwire fences
once the men reached the other side they tried to figure out when the Germans were planning to attack them by listening in on their conversations
raids were made up of larger groups and were usually more violent because they were confronting the German trenches
The soldiers were armed for raids and once they found dead German soldiers they searched them for documents stating their name and rank
Night patrols and raids:
the dead soldiers were laying all around the trenches and the smell of the rotting flesh was awful
many of the soldiers hadn't showered for weeks and were unsanitary
overflowing latrines only made it worse
the lingering smell of gun powder and poisonous gas was always present, but the soldiers grew used to that
Death in Trenches:
chlorine gas was used by the Germans
the soldiers fell to the ground chocking convulsing and needing air
allies of the Germans equipped their men with gas masks to protect them from the deadly poison
but poison gas didn't act as a deciding factor in the war because of its unpredictable nature and the creation of gas masks
Poison gas attacks
trench foot was also a common issue that was caused by the flooding of the trenches from rain and urine
trench mouth is a bacterial infection of the gums that causes bleeding and gradual decomposition of the jaw
was the longest single battle in WW1
Verdun had historic sentiment for the French due to the amount of forts, and if defeated, French spirits would be low and lead to an easier victory
This location was 200 km away from Paris
February 21, 1916- December 16, 1916
significance- influenced the British to start the battle of Somme. Nationalism grew in the French after their victory and told the world they were a power to be reckoned with
Sources for photos
Battle of Ypres
There were three major
battles in Ypres, Belgium.
The First Battle of Ypres
October 30 - November 24, 1914
German and Allied forces wanted to control the town of Ypres, due to its proximity to the sea and the rest of the Western front. This city guarded the ports of the English Channel and provided access to the Northern Sea.
British and French armies fought the German army
started in October 1914 and was halted due to the weather. Neither side won control of Ypres, yet the German advance was halted.
this battle highlighted problems in British and German command.
The Second Battle of Ypres (Ypres Salient)
April 22 - May 25, 1915
in April 1915 the battle continued. The Canadian forces were moved and the Allied line bulged. This concave line was called a salient.
German forces used poison gas for the first time, and the French army got most of it. They either retreated or died, and left the Canadians unguarded.
significance- this was the first time poison gas was used, it led to development of chemical warfare. The Canadian forces won a reputation as dependable and able to hold their own. This battle also inspired the famous poem "In Flanders Fields" by John McCrae.
The Battle of Passchendaele
sometimes called the Third Battle of Ypres
fought between July 31 and November 6, 1917, in Passchendaele, Belgium, only 10 km from Ypres.
it involved the Allied forces (French army, British army and their colonial powers like Canada) and the German Empire
weather took a major part in this battle, as the battlefield became a swamp due to the rain.
The Allied forces were trying to break through German defenses and reach the sea.
the use of mustard gas was seen again, and this costly battle was only stopped after the Allies took hold of the town of Passchendaele village, failing in their goal.
significance- this was one of the war's costlier battles, but further proved Canadian heroism in the war. Canada's involvement in the last stages of the battle were needed in order to call the campaign a success.
chlorine caused immediately fatal effects and violent coughing,
phosgene and mustard had more delayed effects, phosgene sometimes up to 48 hours after it was first inhaled.
mustard gas caused severe burns both internally and externally, and seeped into the ground around the area that it was used, making capture of infected areas a dangerous task.
the projectiles included items such as grenades or smoke bombs
they were first deployed by Germans, which surprised the French and British
the French scrambled to use ancient Napoleonic trench mortars, but the British were totally unprepared and took a few years to design and build them
often filled with poison gas, and could be detonated either by percussive force or by a timed fuse
used by both sides and dealt a lot of damage, and the grenade with the pull-pin timer became the preferred version
the Germans had a larger supply available however, and the British ended up relying on homemade jam tin bombs.
hand held or rifle fired explosives
a short tube that was used to fire projectiles from a safe height down onto the enemy
they were deployed too early by the British, causing the machines to be largely unreliable and break down a lot.
the appearance of these surprised the Germans, but served little purpose until they were further developed 3 years later.
armored vehicles with armed machine guns
more effective in close range as it was difficult to aim, but caused large amounts of devastation to British army.
a projectile of burning solid fuel, such as coal or sulfur.
they overheated quickly, so they were used in short bursts
were initially rejected by the British, use of this weapon gave Germany the upper hand
caused most of the damage during the war.
an automated gun that could fire 400-600 rounds in one minute.
caused mass confusion and chaos, and was often undetectable, making it difficult to defend against.
weapons used during the war included:
a biochemical weapon that destroyed the enemy's respiratory system
Poison gas was a widely used weapon during the war, and was most notably used in the Ypres, Somme, and Passchendaele battles. It was used by all sides, but it was used more often by the Germans for surprise attacks.
It was a very effective weapon as it was often undetectable, causing mass confusion and panic. If detected, the soldiers put on crude gas masks, but for certain kinds like mustard gas it was sometimes a rather ineffective solution.
After WWI, mustard gas was made illegal, as it was undetectable because it was odorless and colorless, causing a slow, painful, and unsuspecting death.
There were 3 kinds of poison gas created: chlorine, phosgene, and mustard.