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Short and Long Term effects on the Cardiovascular System - GCSE PE Edexcel
Transcript of Short and Long Term effects on the Cardiovascular System - GCSE PE Edexcel
Students should understand the impact of a healthy, active lifestyle on their cardiovascular system:
1. exercise and physical activity
a. Immediate and short-term effects of participation in exercise and
physical activity (
increased heart rate
, increased blood pressure)
b. Effects of regular participation in – and long-term effects of
participation in – exercise and physical activity (cardiac output
(HR x SV = CO), decreased resting heart rate, faster recovery,
increased stroke volume, increased size of heart, effects on blood
pressure, healthy veins and arteries)
3. Rest (rest required for adaptation to take place, time for recovery
before next exercise session)
4. Diet (effects on blood pressure and cholesterol – HDL and LDL)
5. Recreational drugs (effects of alcohol and smoking/nicotine on blood
What Are Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures?
Blood pressure is the amount of force (pressure) that blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels as it passes through them. Two pressures are measured for a blood pressure reading:
Systolic blood pressure is a measure of blood pressure while the heart is beating
Diastolic pressure is a measure of blood pressure while the heart is relaxed, between heartbeats.
The two numbers that measure your blood pressure are written like a fraction: one number on top and one on the bottom. For example, what many people consider normal blood pressure is read as 120/80.
Why Are These Numbers Important?
As blood is pumped from your heart into your blood vessels, enough systolic blood pressure is created to send it to all other parts of your body. As blood vessels travel away from the heart, they branch off and gradually get smaller -- just like a tree's branches. One branch may go to the brain while another may go to your kidneys.
Systolic blood pressure keeps blood flowing through the branches so that your body's cells get the oxygen and nutrients they need and waste matter can be removed.
The Cardiovascular System
Rest and Recovery
Rest is very important for the cardiovascular system to recover.
We need to expose ourselves to increased stresses then give body time to adapt to these stresses.
We can use days of light training to help recovery.
If we do not rest we will get injured.
Training can affect the immune system so rest is very important to maintain health.
Cholesterol - HDL and LDL
High cholesterol leads to hardened arteries, coronary heart disease and even strokes. Anyone can have high cholesterol: men, women, the young, the old, the skinny and the not-so-skinny.
However, cholesterol, isn't all bad. On its own, cholesterol is quite handy around the body. It helps form cell membranes. It's crucial for growth in babies, and our bodies make most of it.
A cholesterol molecule is a lipid, which is a category of water-insoluble substances such as waxes, oils and fats. Because it can't dissolve in water or watery substances like blood, cholesterol can't move around in the bloodstream on its own. It has to catch a ride.
In order to travel around the body, cholesterol combines with protein, forming a lipoprotein (lipid + protein). The protein actually coats the cholesterol. However, not all lipoproteins are created equal.
But don't panic. There are things you can do to raise the good cholesterol and lower the bad cholesterol.
Cutting out excess cholesterol in your diet is a good start. Dietary cholesterol is found in animal products, so limiting the meat, eggs, poultry and dairy products you consume will go a long way toward improving your numbers. In addition, you should watch your step around saturated fats and trans fats, which raise LDL levels. Increae the intake of fibre, fruit and vegatables.
Smoking raises cholesterol levels, too, so that's a good reason to quit if you're looking for (another) one.
Increasing the amount of exercise you do can also help to increase the amount of good cholesterol.
When the lipoprotein has more protein than cholesterol, it resembles a Ferrari, smoothly speeding through your body without stopping until the cholesterol arrives at your liver, where it's converted into bile acids. These Ferraris are high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), which most of us just call "good" cholesterol.
When the lipoprotein has more cholesterol than protein, however, this makes for a rickety ride, more Fiat than Ferrari. Cells have special receptors that bind tightly to these lipoproteins as they pass. This low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, sputters down the road, bouncing off arteries, running into things and leaving bits all over the place. While the HDL Ferrari sees a pileup and nimbly speeds around it, the LDL Fiat crashes right into it, adding to the jumble of tangled bumpers and wheels (or platelets and plaque).
Now the HDLs actually are kind enough to offer a lift to any stray LDLs they encounter. The problem is that our levels of HDLs and LDLs get out of whack. There are more Fiat LDLs crashing around than there are smooth Ferrari HDLs to pick them up.
Effects of Exercise on Circulatory System
Endurance training - heart gets bigger, walls thicker and more robust - the resting stroke volume increases and so does cardiac output.
Resting Heart Rate reduced - the slower it is per minute the more efficient it is.
It can pump more blood with fewer beats.
Increase in VO2max
Better transport of Oxygen
Reduce risk of heart disease
Joe Hart - Long Term Effects of Exercise
The Cardiovascular System
By the end of the lesson you should have a clear understanding of the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system.
*A healthy, active lifestyle will have an impact on the body systems. Describe some of the effects of participation on the body’s cardiovascular system.
In your answer you may consider:
• the immediate and short-term effects of participation on each system
• the effects of regular participation and long-term effects on each system.
It will be good if you can score 3/6 in the exam question
It will be better if you can score 4 / 6 in the exam question
It will be exceptional if you can score 5+/6 in the exam question
In your book, list the key components of the cardiovascular system and identify their functions in transporting blood around the body.
Take notes as we move through the slides. Be specific, bullet point where necessary - always link to the syllabus!
Usain Bolt says:
Immediate Effects of Exercise
Heart rate Increases
The endothelium af the arteries widens to let more blood through.
Waste products such as salt and water exit via pores and capillaries at skin surface
Blood vessels dilate at skin surface - release heat, skin reddens
Cardiac centre controls and regulates heart rate
Amount of exercise influences the heart rate
Oxygen and Haemoglobin combine and are transported to muscles
Blood is Shunted to Working Muscles
Blood Pressure Increases
Cardiac Output Increases
Stroke Volume Increases
Long answer question:
Sally is a GCSE PE student who is trying to improve her cardiovascular fitness for her 12 minute run. What are the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system and how will training make it more efficient?
How does exercise effect the
There are 2 types of effects you need to know about!
Immediate effects of exercise
Long term effects of exercise