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Transcript of Reconstruction
9 April, 1865
The North Wins - The Union is preserved
Reconstruction after the Civil War
General Robert E. Lee of the South
Surrenders to General Ulyess S. Grant of the North
THE AFFECTS OF THE CIVIL WAR ON THE SOUTH
Cities in ruin
Many faced starvation
Farm animals – killed or gone
Food prices high
Disabled transportation and communications
Confederate currency (money) worthless
Reuniting the nation
Rebuilding the South in absence of slavery
Power struggle Who should control Reconstruction
Republicans in Congress
Southern states never legally out of the Union
Still had all the rights of states
- Offer southerners AMNESTY
– official pardon
-To receive amnesty
Swear an oath of
loyalty to U.S.
Accept ban on slavery
10% of state population
needed to make
Establish new state
Southern States Left the Union - Should be Punished
Republicans - Wade/Davis Bill
Demanded Loyalty Oath
If willingly served in Confederacy could not participate in new state governments
Barred anyone who served or fought for Confederacy
Concerns of Republicans
Still slaves in border states
Emancipation Proclamation only freed slaves in Confederate states
Still slaves in some Northern Parts
31 January, 1865
14 April, 1865
Similar to Lincoln’s
Gave amnesty to southerners who made pledge
Returned all property – except slaves – to southerners
Wealthy southerners and Confederate official
- No amnesty without a Presidential pardon
A special plan for setting up state governments
Appointed a temporary governor to each state
Voters elect state officials and representatives to U.S. Congress
Declare secession was illegal and refuse to pay Confederate debts
Had to adopt 13th Amendment
Main concern – freedmen – former slave
Helped blacks set up farms on abandoned land
Drew up work contracts between black workers and white landowners
Set up schools and courts for blacks
New state legislatures began to pass new laws called BLACK CODES
Laws that greatly limit the freedom of blacks
Usually to help white southerners economically – power
Under the NEW BLACK CODES -Blacks could not
Testify against whites in court
Serve on juries
Own a gun
Hold a public meeting
Rent property in cities
Blacks could only hold certain jobs – usually in agriculture
Blacks who did not have job – assigned to whites
Not much different life from when slaves
Congress moved to protect blacks
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Protected blacks through courts rather than through army
Blacks made citizens
Illegal to treat person different because of color
President Johnson vetoed the bill
It went against states’ rights
Congress over rode his veto
Radicals in Congress feared supreme Court overturn Civil Rights Act
Made Act into constitutional amendment
14th Amendment Stated
All persons born in U.S. – except Indians – were citizens
No state could take away life, liberty, property without due process
Every citizen entitled to equal protection of laws
Any state preventing adult males to vote would lose representation in Congress
The southern states felt citizenship should be decided by states
President Johnson agreed
Ratified by states in 1868
Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.
THE RECONSTRUCTION ACTS,1867
South divided into five military districts
Each district headed by general backed by soldiers
Generals to see states held constitutional conventions
Delegates chosen by ALL male voters
Confederate leaders not allowed to vote or hold office
Who won the Civil War?
What does Reconstruction mean?
The power struggle between Lincoln and the Republicans was over what?
Lincoln felt the southern states never legally left the Union, so they still had rights of states; and the Republicans felt the South left the Union and should be punished. With which side you agree? Explain why.
What was the Freedmen's Bureau and what did they do?
How do you predict Lincoln's assassination will affect Reconstruction? Explain.
Election of 1866
Radical Republicans Win 2/3 of both Chambers
Johnson has limited power
What were Jim Crow Laws?
What rights does the 14th Amendment give to people?
Why was the Reconstruction Act of 1867 needed?
Explain the plight of the freed blacks in the Post-War South.
Why did southern whites oppose Reconstruction?
Who were "scalawags" and "carpetbaggers"?
Why were "secret societies" formed, their purpose, and their strategies?
What did the 15th Amendment say?
Why was the 15th Amendment important?
What were some of the ways southern states prevented the fulfillment of the 15th Amendment?
Explain Plessy v Ferguson.
How did the decision in Plessy affect the U.S. ?
Why is the Voting Act of 1965 important?
Explain the parallels of the 1860's and early 1960's.
Is the United States still struggling with the issues of the Reconstruction Era? Explain.
Why is it important to study history? Explain by giving specific examples and details.
Thanks for your time!!!