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Lean Manufacturing Tools

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Xoobair Afzal

on 12 December 2015

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Transcript of Lean Manufacturing Tools

Lean Manufacturing Tools
Key Concepts
Heijunka is defined as “The distribution of production volume and mix evenly over time[1]”
Development of Jidoka
Initially Jidoka began its life with the invention by Sakichi Toyoda in 1896 of a simple device that could stop the shuttle on an automatic loom if the thread broke. This meant that it prevented the machine from not only creating defects but also alerted the operator to a problem which meant that one operator could now operate several looms rather than have to stand there watching just one in case something went wrong. This principle became known as Autonomation or automation with a human touch.
Line Stop
This is a step that many western companies fail to make as they fear a loss in productivity due to lines being constantly stopped for “minor” problems.
Within companies such as Toyota line stop is a way of life, if an operator detects a problem they pull a cord or push a button to stop the production line at the end of that production cycle. This lights up an Andon board which alerts the team leader or supervisor who will immediately rush over to help solve the problem. If it can be easily corrected then they do so and restart the line, otherwise they call in whatever support is required to solve the problem.
Many machines produced today have incorporated autonomation ideals in their design as they are seen now very much as being common sense, and with today’s technology are inexpensive and simple to incorporate into a machines design.
It's not having the problem highlighted but in taking action to correct the problem and solve root cause.
It is important that we not only give our operators and supervisory staff the authority and responsibility to stop production when they find a problem.
We must also train everyone in appropriate problem solving tools to enable us to remove the root cause of the problem.
We then need to ensure that any process documentation is updated to incorporate the changes and that we communicate those changes across similar processes and products to spread the learning.
How does Kanban work?
Visualize the workflow
Limit WIP 
Don't push too hard. Pull!
Use, monitor, adapt and improve.

What are the benefits of Kanban?
Some commonly observed benefits are:
Bottlenecks become clearly visible in real-time. This leads people to collaborate to optimize the whole value chain rather than just their part.
Useful for situations where operations and support teams have a high rate of uncertainty and variability.
Tends to naturally spread throughout the organization to other departments such as HR and sales, thereby increasing visibility of everything that is going on at the company.
Prevent Overproduction
Improve work flow
Improves responsiveness to changes in demand.

By-M. Zubair Afzal
What is Lean Manufacturing?
Lean manufacturing or lean production, often simply "lean", is a systematic method for the elimination of waste within a manufacturing system.
Waste created through overburden, through unevenness in work loads, or any other reason.
For many, lean is the set of "tools" that assist in the identification and steady elimination of waste. As waste is eliminated quality improves while production time and cost are reduced.
A form of Production scheduling that purposely manufactures in much smaller batches by sequencing product variants with the same process.

Heijunka converts uneven Customer Pull into even and predictable manufacturing process.
Heijunka is generally used in combination with other key Lean principles to stabilize value flow.
Heijunka is a core concept that helps bring stability to a manufacturing process.
[1]Lean Production Simplified, Pascal Dennis
The Need
for Heijunka
Product Leveling
large batches of the same product may reduce set-up times and changeovers, but usually result in:
long lead times,
swelling inventories,
greater oppertunities for defects,
excessive idle time or overtime.
Production Leveling
Responding to fluctuating customer demand can result in increased overtime or idle time.
Variable production schedules can be stressful = Unhappy workers.
Production Leveling
Meet customer demand in total over a given period of level production.
Finished Goods Inventory to make up for short periods of higher demand.
Predictable work schedules.
Overtime savings.
Happy people Upstream.
Challenges for Heijunka
Technical Factors
With heijunka, there is a need for larger finished goods inventory. This can be seen as antithetical to lean mission.
Obsolescence of finished parts.
Can not immediately be implemented-requires predictable environment, customer data.
Predicting demand is imperfect, Bad data can ruin process.
Social Factors
Depends upon customer contact and accurate information about projected event.
Explaining why it is important to do standardized work before implementing HJ.
Require discipline and much more planning.
Concluding Comments
If Takt time is described as the heart beat of Lean implementation, then Heijunka is the deep breathing exercise of Lean that brings stability (calm) to the manufacturing process, spreading it upstream to internal and external suppliers.
Heijunka, You won’t be HAPPY without it!
Design equipment to partially automate the manufacturing process and to automatically stop when defects are detected.
Principles of Jidoka

Discover an abnormality
Fix the immediate problem
Investigate and correct root cause
It is about building Quality into a process rather than inspecting for it at the end of the process.
This fear however undermines one of the most important tools of Lean Manufacturing; Jidoka, through jidoka we don’t just stop the process, we highlight the problem, correct it and then tackle root cause to prevent the problem ever happening again.
So through a sometimes initially painful series of line stops we start to remove problems from our process, within a short period of time the number of line stops begin to reduce as problems are removed and productivity begins to improve as root causes of problems are removed
Kanban is a Japanese word that means "visual card".

At Toyota, Kanban is the term used for the visual & physical signaling system that ties together the whole Lean Production system.
Thank you for your Attention
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