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Chapter 3: Fiber Classification and Properties

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Rachel Scott

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 3: Fiber Classification and Properties

Elastic Recovery Appearance Retention Properties Basic Categories for
Textile Fibers Protein

Cellulosic

Mineral how completely a fiber returns to its original length after being elongated fibers with more disoriented structures typically have more elastic recovery Pilling occurs most commonly on natural fibers fiber ends entangle due to abrasion Soil Hiding/ Magnification fibers chemically modified to reduce attraction soil Optical Brighteners used to ovecome the dulling effects produced by the accumulation of soil Soil Repellency Comfort
Properties Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, and Hygroscopic effects on cleanability Wicking ex: Olefin Health/ Safety/ Protection Properties Pyrolitic Characteristics Thermoplasticity ability to soften when heated pros and cons affects maintenance Electrical Conductivity/ Static Propensity Natural Fibers Manufactured
Fibers Chapter Three
Fiber Classification and Properties (Also know as synthetic fibers) Cellulosic

Noncellulosic

Mineral

Rubber One way that a designer
can determine what material
they are using is to preform a
burn test. Fiber Approaching flame Wool Silk Burns slowly Curls away from the flame Curls away from the flame (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr In flame Protein Burns quickly After removal
of flame Residue Self-Extinguishing Usually Self-Extinguishing Brittle, small black bead Bead like crushable , black bead Odor Similar to burning hair or feathers Similar to burning hair or feathers Fiber Approaching flame Cotton Flax Burns quickly without melting Does not shrink away, ignites on contact (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr In flame Cellulosic After removal
of flame Residue Continues to burn, afterglow Does not shrink away, ignites on contact Burns quickly without melting Continues to burn, afterglow Light, feathery ash, light charcoal in color Light, feathery ash, light charcoal in color Similar to burning paper Similar to burning paper Odor Fiber Approaching flame Metalic glows red May shrink away from flame or have no reaction In flame Mineral After removal
of flame Residue Glowing ceases, does not burn,
hardens. Skeleton outline of fiber none Odor Fiber Approaching flame Acrylic Modacrylic Burns with melting Fuses and shrinks away from flame (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr In flame Synthetic After removal
of flame Residue Continues to burn with melting Burns slowly and irregularly with melting Self-extinguishing Brittle, irregular shaped black bead Hard, irregular shaped black bead Acrid Acid Chemical Odor Nylon Fuses and shrinks away from flame Fuses and shrinks away from flame Burns slowly with melting Usually Self-extinguishing Hard, tough, round bead, gray Celery conductors: olefin, acrylic insulators: nylon, wool, polyester Resiliency Loft (Compression Resiliency) Olefin Polyester Chemical directly related to wrinkle recovery ex: cotton vs polyester Fuses, shrinks and curls away from flame Fuses and shrinks away from flame Burns with melting Burns slowly with melting Usually Self-extinguishing Continues to burn with melting, black sooty smoke The more loft in carpeting, the less it will show wear in high traffic areas Hard, tough, round bead, tan Hard, tough, round bead, black Chemical or candle wax A few terms:

Drape: The manner in which a fabric
hangs over a three-dimensional
form.
Abrasion resistance: The ability of a textile
structure to resist damage and fiber
loss by friction.
Flexibility: The ability of the fiber to bend
repeatedly without breaking.
Tenacity: Strength.
Elongation: The ability of a fiber to be
stretched or extended.
Cohesiveness: The ability of a fiber to cling
together during spinning.
Sunlight resistance: The ability of a fiber
to withstand deterioration by
sunlight. Fiber Composition, Molecular Structure, and External Physical Features ex: spandex vs rayon rayon vs olefin vs wool Wool Fiber Cotton Fiber Rayon Fiber Manufactured Fiber shape Amorphous: The polymer chains in the
fiber are not aligned parallel to each
other. ability of a fiber to transport moisture along its surface by capillary action Oriented: Polymer chains are aligned
to the long axis of the fiber. Crystalline: When the chains are laterally
or longitudinally parallel to each other
or closely packed, a high number of
chemical bonds, (which are weaker than
the main bonds) may form between
adjacent chains. Rachel Scott and Valerie Jenkins
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