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on 16 December 2013

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Most people form their opinions under the influence of opinion leaders that are influenced by the mass media

Ideas flow from mass media to opinion leaders, and from them to the rest of the population

Also known as the Multistep Flow Model
Spiral of silence

Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann

Society threatens individuals with fear of isolation

Agenda Setting
_ Information about Gezi Resistance
_ Different models in the communication studies
_ Founders of the models
_ Critics
_ Examples, related with models
_ Conclusion

Two Step Flow Model (Multistep Flow Model)
Mass Media
The two-step flow hypothesis—has been criticized and negated by many studies

Deutschmann and Danielson:

“we would urge that the Katz-Lazarsfeld two-stage flow hypothesis, as a description of the initial information process, be applied to mass communication with caution”
Everett Rogers’ “Diffusion of Innovations”

Both findings suggest a greater prevalence of a one-step flow of communication.

Fear of isolation
Willingness to speak out
Quasi-statistical sense

Elements linked to the process of public opinion

These lead to a process of formation, change and reinforcement of public opinion

Noelle-Neumann's spiral of silence as a dynamic process

Influence of the media

Media tells what issues are important

McCombs and Shaw

Rogers and Dearing's model of
differential agenda setting:
Gezi Protests
Gezi protests started on 28 May 2013, basically to protest the urban development plan for Istanbul's Taksim Gezi Park. At first the protest was peaceful, but then, the protesters were confronted by the brutal force of the police. Then the protests spread all over Turkey and strikes took place across Turkey protesting a wide range of concerns, at the core of which were issues of freedom of the press, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, and the government's encroachment on Turkey's secularism.
Çagan Irmak:

I am a tree. I am the one that makes you live. I am the one who witnesses. I am the history.
Şevval Sam:

We are all in Gezi Park. There is just love here. We are united, we are on guard.

Eeeah that’s enough bro!!!

While I am writing this column, protests continue. A few minutes ago, hundreds of students walked down from the Teşvikiye Street and people who live in this street are applauding them from their balconies and stores. I could not wait for Sunday and I am sharing a part of my column now.

The translation of the Gezi Park: Eeeah that’s enough bro!!!

1 Haziran 2013
Gülse Birsel
Examples of Agenda Settings
The Mycelium Model of Public Opinion and Interpersonal Communication
Leyla ile Mecnun series ban
Tüpraş raid
Troldahl, Verling C. "A Field Test of a Modified "Two-Step Flow of Communication" Model." Public Opinion Quarterly 30.4 (2001): 609-23. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Apr. 2010.
(2007), "Opinion climates, spirals of silence, and biotechnology: Public opinion as a heuristic for scientific decision making", in Brossard, D; Shanahan; Nesbit, J, The public, the media, and agricultural biotechnology: An international casebook, Cambridge, MA: Oxford University Press, pp. 231–41
(1977), "Turbulances in the climate of opinion: Methodological applications of the spiral of silence theory", Public Opinion Quarterly 41: 143–58.
Miller, K (2005), Communication theories: perspectives, processes, and contexts (2nd ed.), New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Brouwer, M. (1967) 'Prolegomena to a theory of mass communication', pp. 227-36 in Thayer, L. (ed.), Communication. London: Macmillian.
Shibutani, T. (1966) Improvised News. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.
McCombs, M.E and Shaw, D.L (1972) 'The agenda-setting function of mass media', Public Opinion Quarterly, 36: 176-87
McCombs, M.E and Shaw, D.L (1976) 'Structuring the "Unseen Environment"', Journal of Communication, Spring: 18-22
Rogers E.M. and Dearing J.W (1987) 'Agenda-setting research: where has it been, where is it going?' in Communication Yearbook 11, pp. 555-94.
Shaw, E.F. (1979) 'Agenda-setting and mass communication theory.', Gazette, xxv, 2: 96-105.
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