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Types of Global Environments

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by

Kate Newland

on 5 June 2016

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Transcript of Types of Global Environments

Deserts
Mountains
Example: The Fennec Fox
Homework Activity
Coral Reefs
Antarctica
Polar and Frozen Tundra Regions
Arctic Region
Rivers/Wetlands/Deltas
Rainforests
Grasslands
Coral reefs are found in 109 countries in both tropical and subtropical locations
Typically they are located in shallow waters as the corals need the sunlight to survive (this is how they get their energy)
Coral reefs cover less then 0.2% of our oceans, however contain 25% of all marine species
We have already lost 27% of the world's coral reefs
Currently, 75% of our coral reefs are threatened by climate change/bleaching/ocean acidification

Global Facts
Global sand desert locations
Other types of deserts
Types of Global Environments
Coral reef locations around the world
Fiji's, Indo-Pacific reef
Simpson Desert, Australia
Oman Desert, UAE
Minerals, algae, and cyanobacteria give this geyser in Nevada's Black Rock
Polar deserts
Arizona, USA
Middle Eastern Deserts
More than 1 billion people live in desert regions
Deserts are found on every continent and cover more than one fifth of the Earth's land surface
The hottest desert is the Sahara with temperatures often hitting over 50 degrees during the day
A location that receives less than 25cm of rainfall/year is classified a desert/dryland
Only 10% of deserts are actually covered by sand dunes
More and more semi-arid lands are forming into sand dunes and this process is called desertification
Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada
Mountains are found on every continent
Mountains can be formed through volcanic eruptions or through tectonic plates crushing together and pushing land upwards
The highest mountain in the world is Mount Everest, standing at 8,848m high
The longest mountain in the world is the Mid-Ocean Ridge and 90% of it is underwater

Global grassland locations
African savanna
USA prairies
Australian grasslands
Grasslands have multiple different names depending on where they are located, for example savannas in Africa, prairies in North America, steppes in Central Euroasia and pampas in South America
They are characterised by grass being a dominant environmental feature of the landscape
Approximately one quarter of Earth's surface are classified grasslands
Animals have adapted to the dry and windy conditions and are often grazing animals, such as deer and gazelle which are food for larger predator animals (lions, etc.)
Often grasslands have rich soil which is good for crops and pastures. Unfortunately the majority of North American prairies have been converted into farming lands
Amazon Rainforest
Amazon Rainforest
One in ten species of animal or plant live in the Amazon
The Amazon takes up about 40% of South America's land mass
More than 30 million people still live in and around the Amazon and depend on it for their livelihoods. This includes 350 Indigenous communities
The Amazon suffers from multiple threats including illegal and unsustainable logging, deforestation for cattle grazing, infrastructure and hydro power (damming)
Lets take a closer look at...
The purpose of wetland/detla areas is to clean and purify sediments from rivers or oceans
There are 40 major delta areas around the world
1 every 15 people live, breath and work around these delicate wetland areas
Deltas are inherently low-lying and can be easily eroded. They are vulnerable to sea level rise, which may result in increased flooding.
This could potentially cause high levels of 'environmental refugees' in the future
One third of species on the Endangered Species Act rely on wetlands for their survival
Tectonic plates
Zion, Utah, USA
The size of the Arctic naturally fluctuates with the water freezing in the winter, and melting in the summer
With the impacts of climate change, the ice is melting at a faster rate and not refreezing in the winter as usual
The Arctic has lost approximately 36% of it's volume from 2003-2012
The Arctic could potentially be ice free by 2030
The Arctic is in darkness for 6 months of the year
The coldest temperature recorded in the Arctic is -68 degrees Celsius
Arctic Wolf
Polar Bear
Walrus
Calving of the ice
When the edge of a glacier fractures into the sea, it is known as a 'calving' event.
Recent satellite data shows that a large calving event near the coasts of Canada and Alaska took place in February this year - much earlier than usual.
Arctic and and alpine tundra regions are are areas where trees grow sparsely due to a short growing season, low precipitation, strong winds
Tundras are often found near permanent ice sheets where, during summer, the ice and snow recede to expose the ground and allow vegetation to grow.
It is during this time that the plants and animals make the most of the available vegetation in the warmer months
Alaska
Alaska
Canadian caribou
Tundra regions
Penguins
Penguins
Antarctica is a continent, unlike the Arctic because of the landmass underneath the ice
Only 2% of this landmass is ice free where only moss grows
If Antarctica's ice sheets melted, the world's oceans would rise 60-65m EVERYWHERE
Antarctica holds about 90% of the world's ice, and 70% of the world's fresh water supply
It;s the coldest place on Earth, with -84.5 degrees Celsius recorded in 1983
At its thickest point the ice sheet is 4,776 meters deep
Antarctica has no native people living there, compared to the Arctic and Northern tundra regions
Permafrost: a thick subsurface layer of soil that remains below freezing point throughout the year, occurring mainly in polar regions.
Daintree Rainforest, Australia
Borneo Rainforest
Kauai, Hawaii
Global rainforest locations
Madagascar Rainforests
Kauai, Hawaii
Rainforests cover less than 2% of Earth's surface
Rainforests are found on every continent except for ...
These delicate ecosystems help regulate Earth's temperatures and weather patterns
They suffer many threats including deforestation for cattle grazing/ranching, logging for timber, mining opportunities and impacts of tourism
57% of Earth's rainforests are located in developing countries
Temperate and tropical rainforest
Chose one environment (not polar regions or rainforests) and research one or two animals from that particular environment.
How do you think this animal has adapted to their environment?
What are the main predators of your chosen animal?
Do you think this animal could adapt further to the impacts of climate change in the future?
Aim for about 1/2 a page
The Fennec Fox weighs about 2kg and has really really big ears for exceptional hearing
As this fox lives in the desert, their big ears allows the fox to exert and regulate body heat, therefore keeping the fox cool
They can go for long periods without water
The fox has thick layers of skin and fur keeping the animal warm during the cold desert nights and protects them from the heat during the day
They even have fur on their paws so they don't get burnt from the hot desert sun
The Fennec Fox will be able to adapt in the future as they live on small insects and bugs and live in dens underground
Their main predators are large eagles, captive pet trade (because they are so cute) and fur hunters
Zion, Utah, USA
Mount Everest
Subduction, convergent, divergent plate boundaries
Revelstoke, British Colombia, Canada
Delta: sediment deposited at the mouth of a river, typically where it diverges into several outlets.
Bijagos archipelago, West Africa
Ganges River, Bangladesh
The Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea
Mississippi Delta, Louisiana
What would be the future of the Australian Great Barrier Reef tourism market if the reef disappeared by Christmas?
Desertification: The process where fertile lands becomes desert with more frequent droughts, deforestation, and inappropriate agriculture methods
What are the ways in which the sloth has adapted to its rainforest environment?
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