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Simplicity: How to use PSW to find and help kiddos with SLD

WSASP Spring 2014 Webinar

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Transcript of Simplicity: How to use PSW to find and help kiddos with SLD

Simplicity
How to use PSW to find
and help kiddos with SLDs

Michael Self-Bence, M.A., M.Ed.
Federal Way Public Schools
2012 WSASP School Psychologist of the Year

when evaluating for
learning disabilities
Cross-Battery
Assessment
A simple
way to explain cognition & learning
Getting Started!
First steps!
QUESTION 1 - Limited response to
targeted instruction?
The ONLY way to learn about a child's LD risk factors...
QUESTION 3 - Are LD achievement
markers present?
LD achievement markers refers to
patterns of normative weaknesses
Talking with Parents!
5 Questions
The Student

Children with dyslexia may
demonstrate unique decoding and
spelling patterns

QUESTION 4 - Are deficits in LD-related
cognitive processes present?
This refers to normative weaknesses in cognitive
"brain skills"...
QUESTION 5 - Can all non-LD explanations
be ruled-out as the primary
cause of low achievement?
5 Questions
What is Cross Battery Assessment (XBA)?
Based on the pioneering work of
Flanagan, Ortiz, and Alfonso (2007),
"Must have" book you NEED
Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment, 3rd Ed.

Overview
We all have areas where we GLOW...
and areas where
we can GROW
What is the gist of XBA?
You test academic and cognitive skills trying to answer your hypotheses about the student.
Then you use subtests from additional test batteries to help you answer hypotheses that emerge as your assessment unfolds. For example:
Based on classroom
observations, RTI
data, and academic assessment results...
With another student,
you first give the full KABC-2 battery
To TEST YOUR HYPOTHESIS,
you give two subtests that measure working memory
With another student, you first give the WJ-3 Cognitive Rapid Picture Naming test,

...which measures
rapid automatic
naming or RAN
But you do NOT want to conclude that the child has reading LD...
The child scores well below
most children his age on
Recall of Sequential Order (SS=75)...
You HYPOTHESIZE that the low score may have been a fluke.
A simple approach
BASIC STEPS IN SIMPLIFIED
XBA APPROACH
1) Give academic tests
in areas of referral concern
2) Plot age-based standard scores
and 68% confidence intervals on
the Academic Skills Profile chart
Otherwise, estimate them using the Tables for Estimating Confidence Intervals
3) Give your primary cognitive battery and
plot results on the Profile of Cognitive Skills for Learning chart
You can see that this kiddo demonstrated associative memory like most children his age
Writing notes in the margins can facilitate interpretation,

...including the narrow
abilities measured,
as well as, details
about how the skills
are measured.
ss to SS
T to SS
SS
4) Look at the Profile of Cognitive
Skills for Learning.

Have you measured all of the
relevant cognitive abilities?
Look at Appendix B to find other tests to measure missing areas and continue to plot results on the charts.
5) In areas where normative weaknesses are
indicated, give additional tests to validate
that low performance was not a fluke and
truly represents a real weakness in
cognitive skill.
Use Appendix B to identify other measures.
6) Interpret visual clusters of scores
Is the child's skill in an area
Like
OR
Different
than most children his/her age?
Is the child's skill in an area
Like
OR
Different
than most children his/her age?
Is the child's skill in an area
Like
OR
Different
than most children his/her age?
7) Finally, identify pattern linkages
SEE:
Rapid Reference 2.1 (p48-51) for Reading
Rapid Reference 2.2 (p55-58) for Math
Rapid Reference 2.3 (p60) for Writing
Clustering scores by narrow abilities
(use Appendix B) facilitates interpretation.
The Classroom
Parents
observe child in the classroom
talk with the teacher and intervention providers
review data/evidence showing the impact of targeted instruction in challenges areas
...in academic achievement test results that are indicative of LD
Children with word-level
reading disabilities
tend to perform below most children
their age on standardized tests of
sight word reading
decoding unfamiliar words
spelling
Child has another disability
Child has NOT received appropriate instruction

Child has limited English proficiency,
or there are cultural, environmental or economic factors present
(visual, hearing, motor disability; intellectual disability; emotional disturbance)
in reading and math
A practical framework
for considering
information gathered in an
LD evaluation
...known to be important for
academic learning in the
student's areas of challenge
You use a tailored battery of
academic and cognitive tests
...to provide a comprehensive
assessment of every unique
student learner
...within the conceptual framework of
the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory
of cognitive abilities
...strengths and weaknesses are
examined to identify patterns
diagnostic of learning disabilities
What is CHC theory?
The most current and comprehensive theory of cognitive abilities
Grounded in psychometric science and research
Important overlaps with cognitive psychology and the neurosciences
Unlike test-kit specific models of cognition
For example:
VCI, PRI, PSI, WMI (Wechsler)
Verbal, Nonverbal Reasoning, Spatial Abilities (DAS-2)
Pictorial NVIQ, Geometric NVIQ (CTONI-2)
CHC provides a universal framework
useful across many different tests
...which makes it easier
to interpret results
and write reports!
And when CHC is used with simplified language and descriptions...
...it can help parents,
teachers, and even
older students,
understand and
talk about the
learning needs of
complex learners!
Rapid Reference 2.1-2.3 includes relations between CHC abilities, neurological processes, and academic skills

Appendix B categorizes cognitive tests by the broad and narrow abilities they measure


CD with the Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) program for helping to determine the impact of culture and language on performance
examining the instruction
and intervention the
student has received
including assessments of academic and cognitive skills in areas of suspected disability
(dyslexia)
For example:
"The Itsy Bitsy Spider"
by 7-year-old with dyslexia
For example:
SD is considered for compliance ONLY






Regardless of SD, if the student demonstates:

LD achievement markers
LD-related cognitive deficits
Limited RTI
LD risk factors
If the student demonstrates a pattern of
strengths and weaknesses diagnostic of LD
Establish SPED eligibility under SLD
and provide appropriate services
You HYPOTHESIZE the child may have word-level reading LD.
First, you give the full WISC-4 battery...
but it does not include measures of phonetic processing
To TEST YOUR HYPOTHESIS
you give subtests that measure phonetic processing
Based on the child' s slower
RAN on the WJ-3 (SS=62), you HYPOTHESIZE...
the child may not be as fast as other children his age at retrieving word information from long term memory, a deficit associated with reading LD
based on just one low score that could have been a fluke.
To TEST YOUR HYPOTHESIS
the you give other tests of RAN
You HYPOTHESIZE that the child may have challenges with working memory...
the child demonstrates normative weaknesses in memory span (SS=51, SS=60)
but the KABC-2 does not include measures of working memory
DAS-2 Recall Digits Backward and Recall
of Sequential Order
To TEST YOUR HYPOTHESIS
you give other tests of working memory
Sound Familiar?
YES, because you already
DO test hypotheses
in your assessments
We all have areas where we GLOW...
and areas where
we can GROW
prenatal insult
exposure to teratogens, drugs, etc.
brain injury - undiagnosed TBI
disruption of normal development
developmental delays
early learning problems
hereditary risk for LD - family history of learning problems, LD, and/or special education
STEP 1 - Read the Book
Carefully study Appendix B
and
Rapid Reference 2.1-2.3
STEP 2 - Play around and explore
Plot results from
old evaluations
What do you see?
• Does it under-represent any abilities?
Use Appendix B
As you come to appreciate the strengths and weaknesses of your favorite tests...
you will find yourself seeking
out and learning new tests!
STEP 3 - Start a learning group!
Talk with your colleagues!
Help each other learn!
Email profiles to each other
for input and support!
STEP 4 - Try a case!
Sources of evaluation information
standard scores below 85
such as
CTOPP-2
Elision and
Phoneme
Isolation
such as Rapid
Digit, Letter, Color, and Picture Naming
but within the average range
on Recall of Digits Backwards
(SS=90)
WISC-4 Arithmetic and
Letter-Number Sequencing
LD achievement markers also refers to qualitative patterns suggestive of LD

...observed in how a child performs
during testing and on classroom
work samples
• Does your cognitive test
measure all 7 broad abilities?
(only one subtest measuring the broad area)
• Does it measure, within each broad
area, a variety of narrow abilities?

The child demonstrated visual processing skills more strongly developed than most children her age.
The child demonstrated free recall and associative memory like most children her age,...
and skills for rapidly recalling word information from long term memory much slower than most children her age.
based on research, between cognitive and academic strengths and weaknesses.
Tables estimate 68% confidence intervals for subtests
to find other tests you might use to fill-in those areas.
You might start with the same cognitive test you use now.
Kiddo 1
Kiddo 2
Kiddo 3
Kiddo 4
Kiddo 5
Kiddo 5
Kiddo 6
Kiddo 6
Kiddo 6
Kiddo 5
Kiddo 4
Kiddo 3
Kiddo 2
Kiddo 1
What I want
you to Learn!
I want you to leave this presentation
feeling more confident to try PSW
and to expand your practice of using PSW to find and help kiddos with SLDs
Assumptions:
1) You know why a change from
severe discrepancy is needed
2) You have heard about CHC and XBA,
and
Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment
3) You may want my free forms, tables, etc.
Google: Prezi Michael Self-Bence
EMAIL: MSELFBEN@FWPS.ORG
QUESTION 2 - Are LD risk factors
present?
prenatal insult, exposure to teratogens, drugs, etc.
brain injury - undiagnosed TBI
disruption of normal development
developmental delays
early learning problems
hereditary risk for LD - family history of learning problems, LD, and/or special education
LD risk factors refers to anything that
may have impacted the child's brain:
Crystallized knowledge and language
Fluid reasoning
Processing speed
Visual processing - orthographic processing
Auditory processing - phonological awareness
Short-term memory
Long-term memory - associative memory & RAN
Brain skills important for READING:
Brain skills important for WRITING:
Crystallized knowledge and language
Fluid reasoning
Processing speed
Visual processing - orthographic processing
Auditory processing - phonological awareness
Short-term memory
Long-term memory - associative memory & RAN
Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment, 3rd Ed. - Rapid Reference 2.1
Brain skills important
for MATH:
Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment, 3rd Ed. - Rapid Reference 2.3
Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment, 3rd Ed. - Rapid Reference 2.2
Crystallized knowledge and language
Fluid reasoning
Processing speed
Visual processing (for advanced math)
Short-term memory
Foundational
School Psychologists
are Important
RTI is Important
RTI as an SLD eligibility method
RTI as an organized, preventative pre-referral process for all disabilities
More
Organized
Less
Organized

RTI PRE-REFERRAL SYSTEMS


CLASSIC PRE-REFERRAL TEAMS

---------->
---------->
---------->
Our Scientist-Practitioner
Model is Important
School psychologists use science, data, and research-based best practices
School psychologists use applied experience and professional judgement
IQ Scores?
...are less important
“General intellectual ability” scores are
one-number averages (commonly called
“IQ scores”), that attempt to quantify the
average mental ability underlying results of
various tests of cognitive ability.
A great deal of caution is needed when
interpreting general intellectual ability
scores,
Points
What's Important
About 2/3 (i.e., 68%) of children obtain general intellectual ability scores from 85 to 115.
Scores below 70 are relevant to identifying “intellectual disabilities” (the new term for mental retardation).
because they can change over
time, because they can be culturally and
linguistically biased depending on the
specific measures,
and because they are averages that can obscure an individual’s pattern of stronger and weaker areas.
1905: Binet-Simon
Intelligence Test
Severe Discrepancy?
If you do not have an RTI system in place,
you need to consider/report it for compliance purposes only,
and then use PSW to make your educational diagnosis and determine SLD eligibility.
Whether or not the
SD criterion is met,
a PSW diagnostic
of SLD determines eligibility
Whether or not the
SD criterion is met,
a PSW diagnostic
of SLD determines eligibility
What is MOST important?
Taking intentional action to include parents, teachers, and even older students in PSW discoveries
Use actual 68% C.I.s if available
...and free recall LTM
and RAN well below most
children his age.
Writing notes in the margins can facilitate interpretation,

...including the narrow
abilities measured,
as well as, details
about how the skills
are measured.
4) Look at the Profile of Cognitive
Skills for Learning.

Have you measured all of the
relevant cognitive abilities?
Look at Appendix B to find other tests to measure missing areas and continue to plot results on the charts.
5) In areas where normative weaknesses are
indicated, give additional tests to validate
that low performance was not a fluke and
truly represents a real weakness in
cognitive skill.
Use Appendix B to identify other measures.
6) Interpret visual clusters of scores
Is the child's skill in an area
Is the child's skill in an area
than most children his/her age?
Is the child's skill in an area
than most children his/her age?
Acknowledgements:
Chris Willis
All of my FWPS colleagues
All of you!
WSASP
- FWPS SpEd Director
But it is easier now...
Because we have a reference
to help us find other tests

Appendix B

And because we have some
handy charts to help us
organize our results
Full transcript