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Elements, Compounds, Mixtures.

Done by Ink, Sharon & Yuki
by

Group 3 Pure Chemistry

on 31 July 2013

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Transcript of Elements, Compounds, Mixtures.

elements, compounds and MIXTUREs
Classifying elements
Elements are classified based on their
-metallic and non-metallic properties

-physical state(at room temperature and pressure) solids, liquids or gases.
This is because the sugar has broken down into carbon(black solid) and water vapour.
Have you ever tried making caramel from sugar? You might have found out that if you heat sugar for too long, it turns into a black and bitter mess.
Why is that so?
Carbon is an element.
An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances by chemical processes
Chemical Symbols of Elements
Chemical symbols are used to represent elements.
Classifying Elements
Elements can be classified by

-metallic and non-metallic properties.

-physical states(at room temperature and pressure) solids, liquids or gases.

Atoms and Molecules
Elements can exist as atoms or molecules.
Atoms are the smallest particles of an elements that have the chemical properties of the elements.
Each element contains only one type of atom.
Noble gases, such as are elements that exist as individual atoms. they are monoatomic elements
What are molecules?
What are atoms?
A molecule is a group of two or more atoms that are chemically combined.
Diatomic molecules are those that are formed by the combination of two atoms
Polyatomic molecules are those that contain three or more atoms
Remember how we said sugar can be broken down into Carbon and Water Vapour ?
This is because,

Sugar is a COMPOUND.
A COMPOUND IS A PURE SUBSTANCE CONTAINING TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS CHEMICALLY COMBINED IN A FIXED RATIO.
Like 3 different flavours on one stick of Dango!
Sugar, as mentioned has the molecular formula of,
C
12
H
22
0
11
It is made out of,
22
hydrogen
12
Carbon
11
Oxygen
Forms water
The ratio will always be,
(Sucrose)
Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen
12
:
22
:
11
Changing this ratio will give a different compound.
Composition of a Compound
A compound may be made up of molecules or another type of particles called Ions.
Water is made out of molecules.
Salt (Sodium Chloride) is made up of ions
NaCl Ion
Water Molecule
What are Ions?
Ions are electrically charged particles. An ion carries either
+
positive or
-
negative charges.
A compound has different properties from the element that form it.
Properties of a Compound
An Example is Magnesium Oxide:
Magnesium
Oxygen
Magnesium Oxide
+
=
NAMES OF COMPOUNDS
chemical formula of a compound
A compound can be represented by a chemical formula. The chemical formula of a compound is written by putting together the chemical symbols of the elements that make up the compounds.
H
2
O
The symbols tell us that hydrogen and oxygen atoms are present in the compound.
The subscipt '2' tells us that there are two hydrogen atoms in one water molecule.
Chemical Formulae
Decomposition of compounds
Chemical processes such as thermal decomposition and electrolysis can be used to decompose compounds.
THERMAL DECOMPOSITION
Thermal decomposition involves heating a compound strongly.
Electrolysis
Electrolysis is the process of using electricity to break down a compound.
Ever wondered what would happen if Sugar and Water are mixed?
+
=
?
The result? A cloudy liquid called sugar water which looks like this
WHY?
This is a mixture.
A mixture is made up of two or more substances that are not chemically combined.
And its components are not fixed, meaning they can be present in any ratio!
In this case, H
2
O (Water) and C
12
H
22
O
11
(Sugar) are 2 compounds that mix together.
Since mixtures are comprised of more than two substances, we can say that a sandwich is a mixture.
YUM!
And so is air!
Confused between Compounds and Mixtures?
The Differences
CREDIT: CHEMISTRY MATTERS BOOK
PRODUCED BY
SHARON LIM(COMPOUND PART)
YUKI NG (MIXTURE PART)
ASSAWASATHITTHIP PHENSIRI (ELEMENT PART)
THANK YOU FOR WATCHING
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