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Western Classical Music

1600-1899
by

Gemma Leach

on 31 May 2012

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Transcript of Western Classical Music

Baroque Classical Romantic Medieval 20th Century Music The History of Music 450-1450 1450-1600 1600-1750 1750-1830 1830-1900 1900-2000 G. F. Handel 1685-1759 Musical Connections Ornate architecture gilded paintings Musical features: ornamented melodies
major and minor keys
clear tonality
composers thought more vertically
use of diatonic chords
basso continuo
much polyphony
terraced dynamics keyboard instrument
plays chordal accompaniment with
string bass line
underneath notes or chords
from within the
key Instruments Harpsichord
Full Strings (Violins 1+2, Viola,’Cello, Double Bass)
Recorders, Oboe, Bassoon, Trumpet Musical Connections Symmetrical
architecture Mozart 1756-91 Musical features: Balanced phrasing
Melody-dominated homophony
Balanced structures
Clear keys and cadences
Pedal points
More varied dynamics for contrast and surprise
Simple harmony/tonality
Lots of circle of 5ths progressions
Melody lines shared between strings and wind Instruments As Baroque
+ flutes, clarinets, horns, timpani
piano replaced harpsichord Chopin 1810-49 Musical features Range of feelings and emotions
Long melodies with large leaps
Freedom of form
Chromatic harmony
Strong dynamic contrasts
Links to other art forms
Virtuoso performers
Nationalism
Modulations to distant keys extended chords pppp-ffff art and literature Full Orchestra - large brass and percussion sections
New instrumental techniques
Development of the piano Instruments: Vivaldi Purcell J. S. Bach Beethoven Haydn Enlightenment -
new philosophical ideas Berlioz Tchaikovsky Brahms Musical Connections beauty of nature emotion technical virtuosity Renaissance D
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s ar usic cience literatur philos phy architectur Music was either SACRED or SECULAR Musical features: Modal
A capella SATB music
Polyphonic vocal music
Imitative textures
Composers thought linearly
Homophonic instrumental dances Composers of sacred music:
Josquin
Tallis (e.g. 'If Ye Love Me')
Byrd
Palestrina Birth of the opera
with Monteverdi's 'L'orfeo'
in 1607 Structure:
recitatives
vocal solos
choruses
instrumental dances
ritornelli The words are important:
homophonic/monophonic
mostly syllabic
some melismas on important words Baroque forms binary (AB)
ternary (ABA)
rondo/ritornello (ABACA)
variation (A,A1,A2,A3) Types of music: opera
overture
sonata
solo concerto
concerto grosso
chamber music
suite
oratorio
chorale
fugue Early baroque Late baroque text was important
Baroque monody
basso continuo
operas
church organ music more keyboard music
many operas and oratorios
instrumental dances
concerto grosso
ritornello form
ornamentation Gabrieli and Monteverdi Vivaldi
and
Corelli Bach and Handel The symphony = an extended work for orchestra, usually in 3 or 4 movements Sammartini C.P.E. Bach "the first major Classical composer" developed from opera overtures (a.k.a sinfonias) EARLY CLASSICAL:
contrasting 1st and 2nd subjects
simple texture
short motivic themes
use of dynamics
some Baroque features (e.g. ornamentation, harpsichord
concerto grosso style Haydn MID CLASSICAL:
scored for strings, wind (and percussion)
grander and longer
majestic slow intros
lots of development of thematic material
intensified rhythmic drive
richer, more chromatic harmonies
more texturally complex Mozart LATE CLASSICAL:
mass of sound
abrupt dynamic shadings
urgent rhythms
emotional
much longer through much development of themes
range of harmonies
moves to unrelated keys
more technically demanding
new instruments (e.g. contrabassoon, piccolo) Beethoven Sammartini - Symphony 13 (1740) Mozart - Symphony 40 (1788) Beethoven - Symphony 3 (1803) Classical forms
symphony
string trio/quartet/quintet
piano trio/quintet
soloconcerto
sonata
art song
sacred choral music (e.g. mass, oratorio)
comic opera Types of music: large-scale opera
symphony
concerto
lied
programme symphony
symphonic poem
concert overture
piano music
sonata
chamber music
ballet scores
operettas (comic operas) Wagner e.g. Liszt Tchaikovsky Symph 5, Mvt 2 How long is the horn melody? Comment on the orchestration. Chopin 'Raindrop' Prelude Tchaikovsky 'Romeo and Juliet Overture' - opening Why is the opening theme appropriate for Friar Tuck? How is this romantic? How is suspense created? Schubert 'Gretchen am Spinnrade' How is the piano accompaniment programmatic? Any other romantic features? Expressionism Serialism Electronic music The absurd Minimalism
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