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Attitudes to Marriage and Relational Partners Across Cultures
Transcript of Attitudes to Marriage and Relational Partners Across Cultures
marriage as a spiritual bond
Through the marriage ritual, the two 'partial beings' become one
A transition from the role of apprentice to householder (Srinivasan, 2006)
Inter-caste marriage and divorce unthinkable Collectivism Japan Collectivism: What is Individualism? Characteristics of Individualistic cultures:
Focus on the self
Values personal goals
A more diverse population Collectivist Characteristics of collectivist
Group unity and harmony
Equal distribution of rewards
Cooperation References Hinduism: : marriage as according to familial desires and socio-religious norms Traditionally arranged by elders
Buss et al. (1990)
10 000 men and women across 37 different cultures surveyed on factors in choosing a mate
Rated preference for 18 characteristics, such as 'dependable character, chastity, good health, etc'
Indian sample rated 'good heredity', 'desire for home and children' and 'education and intelligence' highly Gender roles: marriage within a patriarchal society Individualist Love-marriage Woman as mother and caretaker
Man as the breadwinner Hofstade (1991) marriage for production and reproduction ‘a multi-generational property-owning corporate group which continues over time’ Long (1987)
Mate selection criteria for Japanese sample was mundane and practical
Japanese spouses less emotionally involved than American counterparts Arranged marriage, 'omiai'
By elders of higher social standing and age
'legara' or birth/lineage most important The USA Freedom of choice
To fulfill oneself
Dating Yelsma and Athappilly (1988)
Xiaohe and Whyte (1990)
Myers, Madathil and Lynne(2005)
Madathil and Benshoff(2008) Marital Satisfaction Methods •CHARISMA
•“How satisfied are you with your marital relationship in general?”
•Dyadic Adjustment Scale Methodological Issues Ethnocentrism:
Incorrect interpretation of observation
To what extent does culture influence an individual?
Individualism - Collectivism Future Directions •Why we need to study this topic?
•What we should to account to make our research better? Applbaum, Kalman D., Marriage with the proper stranger: Arranged marriage in metropolitan Japan, Ethnology, 34, 37-51.
Buss, D. M., Abbott, M., Angleitner, a., Asherian, a., Biaggio, a., Blanco-Villasenor, a., Bruchon-Schweitzer, M., et al. (1990). International Preferences in Selecting Mates: A Study of 37 Cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 21, 5–47. doi:10.1177/0022022190211001
Hatfield, E., & Sprecher, S. (1995). Men’s and women's preferences in marital partners in the United States, Russia, and Japan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26(6), 728–750. doi:10.1177/002202219502600613
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Michael. Minkov. (1991). Cultures and organizations. London: McGraw-Hill.
Iwasawa, M., Mita, F., & Moriizumi, R. (2008). Attitudes toward Marriage and the Family among Japanese Singles Overview of the Results of the Thirteenth Japanese National Fertility Survey , Singles, 6.
Kamo, Y. (1993). Determinants of marital satisfaction: A comparison of the United States and Japan. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 551–568. doi:10.1177/0265407593104005
Kline, S. L., Zhang, S., Monohar, U., Ryu, S., Suzuki, T., & Mustafa, H. (2012). The role of communication and cultural concepts in expectations about marriage: Comparisons between young adults from six countries. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 36, 319-330. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2012.03.003
Levine, R., Sato, S., Hashimoto, T., & Verma, J. (1995). Love and marriage in eleven cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 554–571. doi:10.1177/0022022195265007
Long, S. O. (1987). Family Change and the Life Course in Japan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Madathil, J., & Benshoff, J.(2008). Importance of marital characteristics and marital satisfaction: A comparison of Asian Indians in arranged marriages and Americans in marriages of choice. The Family Journal, 16, 222-230.
Myers, J. E., Madathil, J., & Tingle, L. R. (2005). Marriage satisfaction and wellness in India and the U.S.: A preliminary comparison of arranged marriages and marriages of choice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 83, 183-190.
Spering M.(2001) Current issues in cross-cultural psychology: Research topics, applications, and perspectives. Institute of Psychology,University of Heidelberg, Germany.
Srinivasan, A. V. (2006). The Vedic Wedding: Origins, Tradition and Practice. East Glasonbury, CT: Periplus Line LLC.
Srinivasan, A. C. (2010). Mate Selection in Modern India.
Yang, W.-S., & Yen, P.-C. (2011). A comparative study of marital dissolution in East Asian Societies: Gender attitudes and social expectations towards marriage in Taiwan, Korea and Japan. Asian Journal of Social Science, 39, 751–775. doi:10.1163/156853111X619210