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French-English Relations

FLQ, The October Crisis, The War Measures Act, Distinct Society, Party Quebecois and Bloc Quebecois, Referendum.

Karlee Zammit

on 13 June 2011

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Transcript of French-English Relations

French-English Relations in the 1970's FLQ The Front de Liberation du Quebec A left-wing nationalist and socialist paramilitary (a force whose function are similar to those of the military but never considered the states actual armed force) group in Quebec, Canada active between 1963 and 1970.
Regarded as a terrorist organization.
Members of the organization were known as "Felquistes".
Some of the members were organized and trained by Georges Schoeters, a Belgian revolutionary. Georges was one of the founders and a leader of the FLQ.
It is responsible for the bombing of the Montreal Stock Exchange in 1969.
The FLQ believed that the Quebec government was corrupt, and all they cared about was money. In order to gain support from followers, they held rallies and gatherings where they would share their opinions.
It was a loose association operating as a clandestine cell system (parts of the group from different areas). The October Crisis The October Crisis was a series of events that took place in October, 1970 by the FLQ. On October 5th, 1970 the Liberation Cell kidnapped James Cross. In exchange for his release, they had a list of demands. Demands of the FLQ October Timeline The FLQ has committed more than 200 violent crimes, including thefts, bombings, robberies, hold-ups, and was responsible for six deaths. Louise Cossette-Trudel, member of the FLQ, waited outside James Cross’s house making sure he had not left. When the kidnappers arrived, Louise gave them the thumbs up that he was still home. Shortly after, James Cross was kidnapped from his home. The FLQ sends their demands to the Montreal radio station CKAC. October 5th, 1970: 1.The police cannot get involved by trying to jeopardize the success of the operation by conducting searches, investigations, raids, arrests or by any other means. 2. The FLQ manifesto must appear on the front page of the principal newspapers, and it should be sent to every region in Quebec. The manifesto will also be played on the television for at least thirty minutes and commented upon by the political prisoners before their release. 3.Political prisoners Cyriaque Delisle, Edmond Guenette and François Schirm, Serge Demers, Marcel Faulkner, Gérard Laquerre, Robert Levesque, Réal Mathieu, and Claude Simard; Pierre-Paul Geoffroy, Michel Loriot, Pierre Demers, Gabriel Hudon, Robert Hudon, Marc-André Gagné, François Lanctot, Claude Morency, and André Roy; Pierre Boucher and André Ouellette must be released. Wives and children must be allowed to join them if they wish. Political prisoners André Lessard, Pierre Marcil, and Réjean Tremblay, presently out on bail, must be allowed to join their patriotic comrades and leave Quebec if they want to. 4. A plane must be made available to the political prisoners for their transport to either Cuba or Algeria, when an agreement has been made with either one of these countries. They also must be accompanied by their lawyers and two political reporters of the two French Quebec dailies. 5. During a meeting attended by the Lapalme boys and the Postmaster – General – or a representative – the latter must promise to reinstate them. The reinstatement promise must take into account the standards and conditions already secured by the revolutionary workers of Lapalme prior to the breaking off of negotiations. This meeting must take place within 48 hours after the release of the political prisoners. 6. $500,000 in gold bullion must be aboard the plane available to the political prisoners. 7. The name and the picture of the informer who led the police to the last FLQ cell must be made public and published. The FLQ possesses information dealing with the acts and movements of the informer, and is only awaiting “official” conformation to act. 1. As soon as the political prisoners are released, there must be a private room for them with a copy of this manifesto so they can familiarize themselves with it.

2. They cannot be harmed in any way.

3. In the hours following the freedom of the political prisoners, they must be able to communicate with their respective lawyers, they must be allowed to make the choice to stay in or leave Quebec, they must be on the television show as discussed before, and their friends and family must be able to visit them.

4. The news reporters etc., who will be with the political prisoners, must have transportation back to Montreal.

5. The $500,000 bullions must be placed in nine brinks trucks and taken to the Dorval airport. How They Should Be Carried Out October 6th, 1970: The Bourassa cabinet meets with the federal government to discuss the FLQ’s demands. The federal government states that the demands are “wholly unreasonable”. October 7th, 1970: The FLQ states that if the demands are not met, they will kidnap another political figure. The manifesto is read on CKAC once again. October 10th, 1970: The FLQ kidnaps Pierre Laporte off his front lawn. October 11th, 1970: Laporte writes a letter to Robert Bourassa (Premier of Quebec) asking for the release of the political prisoners in exchange for himself. In the evening, Bourassa makes a statement which makes no promises but leaves the door open for negotiation October 13th, 1970: Robert Demers, on behalf of the Quebec government, offers save conduct to the kidnappers and parole for five of the political prisoners. They basically said no to the demands. Immediately after this, Pierre Laporte was murdered by the FLQ. October 16th, 1970: The War Measures Act was invoked for the first time in history in peacetime. October 17th, 1970: Anonymous callers to a radio station announcing Laporte had been murdered and the location of a map that would lead to his body. December 1970 The location of where the kidnappers were holding James Cross was found and on December 3rd, five of the terrorisits were granted save passage to Cuba in exchange for his release. War Measures Act The Decline of the FLQ The Parti Quebecois is the result of the merge between Rene Levesque’s Mouvement Souverainete – association and the Rassemblement pour l’independence national (RIN) in 1968.
A party that wants soveriegnty for Quebec.
The Parti Quebecois main goals were to achieve political, economic and social independence for Quebec.
In the 1976 political election, the Parti Quebecois was elected for the first time to form the government of Quebec. The party’s leader, Rene Levesque, became the Premier of Quebec.
One of the most important bills passed by the Parti Quebecois was BILL 101.
The Parti Quebecois was the base for the Bloc Quebecois. The Road to a Referendum The newly elected leader of the Parti Quebecois, Rene Levesque, had a rough start at his political career. In the first two elections he ran in (1970 and 1973) he was defeated in the ridings he ran in. In the 1976 election, he softened his message by promising a “referendum” on sovereignty-association rather than outright separation.
Sovereignty-association refers to the province of Quebec being politically independent from Canada but continuing to have an economic association or partnership with Canada
Quebec is a very distinct society, meaning that they are very unique and unlike the rest of Canada.
A referendum would mean that Quebec would have independence in most government functions but share other ones, like the same money as Canada. This would accommodate their society, while still having protection and similarities with the rest of Canada.
In 1976, the Parti Quebecois won the first election.
Although the referendum seemed like a great idea, almost 60% of Quebeckers voted against the proposition. After this loss, Levesque went back to Ottawa to start to negotiate a new constitution with Trudeau and his minister of Justice Jean Chretien, and nine other provincial premiers. Levesque insisted that Quebec be able to veto any future constitutional amendments.
The negotiations quickly reached a standstill and would not be solved until 1981.

They had set a up a road to a referendum. October 15th, 1970: More than 3,000 students attended a protest rally in favour of the FLQ. Demonstrations of public support influenced subsequent government actions. October 16th, the cabinet under Trudeau's chairmanship advised the Governor General to invoke the War Measures Act at the request of the Premier of Quebec (Robert Bourassa) and the Mayor of Montreal (Jean Drapeau).
497 suspected members of the FLQ were arrested.
The majority of the people of Quebec were in agreement with the War Measures Act being invoked.
In place until 1980's. - A direct vote in which an entire electorate (such as Quebec) is asked to either agree or disagree with a proposal. In this case, the people of Quebec were asked if they wanted to be sovereignty-association with Quebec. Important People Pierre Trudeau: 15th Prime Minister of Canada James Cross: A British diplomat in Canada Pierre Laporte: Deputy Premier and Minister of Labour in Quebec during 1970. Robert Bourassa: 22nd Premier of Quebec Robert Demers: Official agent for the Quebec Liberal Party and President of the Montreal Stock Exchange. Rene Levesque: Founder of the Party Quebecois and 23rd Premier of Quebec. Summary The FLQ terrorized Quebec in 1970 with what we now call the October Crisis.
James Cross and Pierre Laporte were both kidnapped by the FLQ.
Pierre Laporte was murdered when the demands of the FLQ were not met.
The War Measures Act was invoked for the first time in peacetime.
James Cross was found and in exchange for his freedom, five political prisoners were granted safe passage to Cuba.
The FLQ lost all their popularity, and were no longer active after 1970.
People turned to Party Quebecois for their government.
Party Quebecois was elected in 1976 and Rene Levesque became the Premier of Quebec.
Rene proposed a referendum of sovereignty-association to Quebec and no one liked it.
Levesque, John Chretien, and nine others paved the road to a referendum.
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