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Continental Drift

Sea floor Spreading, Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, Volcanos and sources
by

hank chapman

on 18 December 2012

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Transcript of Continental Drift

Continental Drift Science Project By Hank Chapman Sea Floor Spreading Sea Floor Spreading is real. I know it is real
Because Harry Hess discovered it during World
War 2. He used sonar and found mountains under
the ocean. Sea floor spreading has 4 evidences.
1-Molten lava on the ocean floor (or gloop gloops and glub glubs)
2-Magnetic stripes in the ocean floor
3-Age of rocks, the farther away from the mid ocean ridge, the older the rocks.
4- They found underwater volcanoes with Alvin the submarine. The mid ocean ridge is the longest mountain
range in the world. Every 200 million years the ocean
floor is renewed. The Pacific Ocean is shrinking and
the Atlantic Ocean is getting bigger. The mid ocean
ridge is 12000 miles long and 1200 miles deep. Plate Tectonics There are 3 types of Plate Tectonics
-Divergent Boundaries
-Convergent Boundaries
-Transform Boundaries Divergent Boundaries are where plates move away
from each other. Iceland is on a Divergent Boundary.
Iceland is right on the mid ocean ridge and it will split apart in a couple thousand years. The Atlantic Ocean will fill in the gap. But since new land will be forming, both sides of Iceland will still be getting bigger. Convergent Boundaries are where
subduction happens. There are 3
types on convergent boundaries.
-oceanic- continental
-oceanic-oceanic
-continental-continental Oceanic-Continental
The ocean dives under the
land because the oceanic crust weighs
more then the land crust, so it dives under
the continental crust. Oceanic-Oceanic
When 2 oceanic plates crash into
each other and one sinks under
the other. The one on top can rise
up and make a island. Continental-continental
They both weigh the same,
that makes them
go up and that
creates mountains. The
Himalayas is a example of 2
continental plates crashing
into each other
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=island&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=616&tbm=isch&tbnid=eBHgJuULLB5QIM:&imgrefurl=http://askmichelleshelton.com/arizona-horse-property-q-a/maricopa-county-island/&docid=NNa8tKPpxMTuTM&imgurl=http://askmichelleshelton.com/wp-content/uploads/Island_3.jpg&w=1024&h=768&ei=dWmiUM6rGcjk2AWv3oGICw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=362&vpy=145&dur=1264&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=107&ty=92&sig=106012979012221196979&page=1&tbnh=130&tbnw=179&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:78

http://www.google.com/imgres?q=convergent+boundary+oceanic+and+continental&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=616&tbm=isch&tbnid=eaPbVnU-pMNyCM:&imgrefurl=http://www.platetectonics.com/book/page_5.asp&docid=Yg8DPqIoy9cJzM&imgurl=http://www.platetectonics.com/book/images/Convergence1.gif&w=302&h=178&ei=_2miUN7lBcXK2AXX5oHwCQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=384&vpy=172&dur=1425&hovh=142&hovw=241&tx=108&ty=101&sig=117234162956668870526&page=1&tbnh=109&tbnw=185&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:78


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http://www.google.com/imgres?q=himalayas&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=616&tbm=isch&tbnid=A5zM17tGD8l6xM:&imgrefurl=http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/news/international/countriesandterritories/himalayas/index.html&docid=qD5ci9Blp3yCrM&imgurl=http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/05/14/timestopics/himalayas-395.jpg&w=395&h=225&ei=OWyiUPOpB8js2QX-k4C4CQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1021&vpy=300&dur=374&hovh=169&hovw=298&tx=222&ty=100&sig=104758956556362698540&page=1&tbnh=105&tbnw=185&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:0,i:115

http://www.google.com/imgres?q=mid+ocean+ridge&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=616&tbm=isch&tbnid=vud5mmh_nXEzcM:&imgrefurl=http://www.setterfield.org/weekly%2520Bible%2520Studies/Peleg.html&docid=vuRaYLRTCRlYzM&imgurl=http://www.setterfield.org/mid-ocean%252520ridge.jpg&w=480&h=526&ei=pmqiUP_zBPSk2gWBj4DYDg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1105&vpy=245&dur=562&hovh=235&hovw=214&tx=177&ty=199&sig=114272872138941891596&page=3&tbnh=136&tbnw=124&start=50&ndsp=32&ved=1t:429 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=himalayas&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=616&tbm=isch&tbnid=A5zM17tGD8l6xM:&imgrefurl=http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/news/international/countriesandterritories/himalayas/index.html&docid=qD5ci9Blp3yCrM&imgurl=http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/05/14/timestopics/himalayas-395.jpg&w=395&h=225&ei=OWyiUPOpB8js2QX-k4C4CQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1021&vpy=300&dur=374&hovh=169&hovw=298&tx=222&ty=100&sig=104758956556362698540&page=1&tbnh=105&tbnw=185&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429

http://www.google.com/imgres?q=himalayas&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=616&tbm=isch&tbnid=A5zM17tGD8l6xM:&imgrefurl=http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/news/international/countriesandterritories/himalayas/index.html&docid=qD5ci9Blp3yCrM&imgurl=http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/05/14/timestopics/himalayas-395.jpg&w=395&h=225&ei=OWyiUPOpB8js2QX-k4C4CQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1021&vpy=300&dur=374&hovh=169&hovw=298&tx=222&ty=100&sig=104758956556362698540&page=1&tbnh=105&tbnw=185&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=himalayas&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=616&tbm=isch&tbnid=A5zM17tGD8l6xM:&imgrefurl=http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/news/international/countriesandterritories/himalayas/index.html&docid=qD5ci9Blp3yCrM&imgurl=http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/05/14/timestopics/himalayas-395.jpg&w=395&h=225&ei=OWyiUPOpB8js2QX-k4C4CQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1021&vpy=300&dur=374&hovh=169&hovw=298&tx=222&ty=100&sig=104758956556362698540&page=1&tbnh=105&tbnw=185&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:0,i:11

http://www.google.com/imgres?q=divergent+plate+boundary&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=616&tbm=isch&tbnid=c1V8HPxeSni4bM:&imgrefurl=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/plates3.html&docid=DoLNVn1phlM57M&imgurl=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/images/modules/msese/earthsysflr/EFPlateP3.gif&w=294&h=175&ei=W2qiUNuCFOih2QWQ_IDoDw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=700&sig=110498107552536417234&page=1&tbnh=105&tbnw=177&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429 Transform Boundaries are where 2
plates are sliding sideways past each
other. California is a good example of
that because the San Andres Plate slides
against the California Plate which makes
earthquakes. More Sources Sources Volcanoes

There are 3 main types of volcanoes.
Composite- They are tall and thin.
The magma is thick, the gas can escape
and there is explosions. Shield- It is shaped like a bowl with
long slopes from lava flowing down it.
The magma is runny and flows down
the sides of it. Cinder Cones- The lava
starts to break into smaller
pieces and it is shaped like a
cone 1 in 10 people are in danger
of a volcano. Over the last 500
years 200000 people have been
killed by volcanoes. Viscosity is the thickness of magma.
The more water there is in a volcano
the more gas it has. There are lots of
volcanoes around the Ring Of Fire. A Plinian Eruption is the most
dangerous eruption. It has ash
clouds, debris, lava fountains,
and land slides. There are 150 active volcanoes in the
world. Volcanoes make tsunamis, flash
floods, earthquakes, and rock slides. They also
have some good effects. Volcanoes produced our
atmosphere, make fertile soil and geothermal
heat. Earthquakes There are 3 types of faults.



Tension- The crust is pulled, stretching
the rock thinner in the middle. The 2
faults are going away from each other.


Compression(normal fault)
- The rock
is squeezed until it folds
or breaks.

Transform faults- The rocks
are pushed in opposite
directions causing a break
or a slip.


The focus is where
the earthquake starts. The epicenter
is the point on the earths surface where
the earthquake is the strongest. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=earthquake+focus+and+epicenter&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&rls=com.microsoft:en-us&rlz=1I7ADSA_en&biw=1680&bih=869&tbm=isch&tbnid=axgo4XUczrz5WM:&imgrefurl=http://earthquakesandplates.wordpress.com/2008/05/12/difference-between-earthquake-focus-and-the-epicenter/&docid=3O7mAAS4hFS7AM&imgurl=http://earthquakesandplates.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/epicenter.gif&w=216&h=212&ei=TZ7PUJ-1KcbX0QGH4oHACg&zoom=1&iact=hc&dur=301&sig=113546053292698836458&page=1&tbnh=139&tbnw=142&start=0&ndsp=41&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:92&tx=104&ty=92&vpx=376&vpy=137&hovh=169&hovw=172 There are 3 types of seismic waves:
1-primary waves- they cause the ground
to compress and expand like a accordion.
they can travel through the solid and liquid and
surface of earth and p waves are the fastest
2-secondary waves- they cause the ground to shake up
and down. They can only travel through solid material
so at the outer core they stop.
3-surface waves can only travel on the surface and they
cause the most destruction http://www.google.com/imgres?q=composite+volcano&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=N&tbo=d&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&biw=1280&bih=872&tbm=isch&tbnid=4DG_L3jWDi4o5M:&imgrefurl=https://kingsvcegeo.wikispaces.com/Composite%2BVolcano&docid=SNfR4iLgQyr5_M&imgurl=https://kingsvcegeo.wikispaces.com/file/view/volcanodiagram.gif/327137750/474x376/volcanodiagram.gif&w=474&h=376&ei=8oHQUNmzJofC2QXax4CYBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=596&vpy=251&dur=3744&hovh=200&hovw=252&tx=132&ty=109&sig=105230304179270564379&page=2&tbnh=147&tbnw=185&start=30&ndsp=36&ved=1t:429,r:33,s:0,i:194
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=real+shield+volcano&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&biw=1280&bih=872&tbm=isch&tbnid=0X5M2vaCOvFQ1M:&imgrefurl=http://library.thinkquest.org/03oct/00795/voltypes.html&docid=mwME4_jq2eS_7M&imgurl=http://library.thinkquest.org/03oct/00795/images/typesc.GIF&w=265&h=236&ei=6ILQUIqnO6ik2gW9-4GwCA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1021&vpy=129&dur=1014&hovh=188&hovw=212&tx=126&ty=84&sig=114107455068705415278&page=1&tbnh=141&tbnw=159&start=0&ndsp=28&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:101
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=magma&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&biw=1280&bih=872&tbm=isch&tbnid=Ahu5ZE5pG9vvzM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magma&docid=KpMbJ4WVaDzdHM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/82/Pahoehoe_toe.jpg/300px-Pahoehoe_toe.jpg&w=300&h=188&ei=ZYTQUKv0O-Ha2AXThIGIDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=2&vpy=147&dur=406&hovh=150&hovw=240&tx=138&ty=64&sig=113255945027765894915&page=1&tbnh=140&tbnw=213&start=0&ndsp=32&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:86
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=plinian+eruption&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&biw=1280&bih=872&tbm=isch&tbnid=S0dcPXwr0eK7sM:&imgrefurl=http://thekidvolcanologist.wordpress.com/&docid=r2iGqkt9SbIqDM&imgurl=http://thekidvolcanologist.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/plinian-eruption.jpg&w=380&h=322&ei=FYXQUIynNLSO2QXkrID4Ag&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=460&vpy=409&dur=4852&hovh=207&hovw=244&tx=132&ty=95&sig=110605044336064958889&page=1&tbnh=151&tbnw=183&start=0&ndsp=40&ved=1t:429,r:20,s:0,i:151
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=happy+volcano&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbo=d&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&biw=1280&bih=872&tbm=isch&tbnid=i75qqQRWb0OLAM:&imgrefurl=http://wallpaper.kaywa.com/p8.html&docid=KSIGFQekjwymnM&imgurl=http://wallpaper.kaywa.com/files/volcano_208x208.jpg&w=208&h=208&ei=AobQUO2xHsf-2QXQ94CgDQ&zoom=1
Full transcript