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English Grammar

Language in Context
by

George Parafina

on 23 March 2015

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Transcript of English Grammar

RIGHT OPTION
BAD OPTION
M5 - Grammar Reference
Good luck!
Tell your audience about the benefits resulting from a successful project completion
English Grammar
Nouns : book(s), child(ren), information, life
Adjectives : easy, old, open-minded, possible
Adverbs : easily, sometimes, very
Articles: a, an, the
Quantifiers : any, every, a few, some
Comparative forms : more beautiful, easiest, fewest
Prepositions : at, in, on top of, since
Verbs : speak, go, can, will, drinking, been
Part A Words
The old woman walked slowly up another hill.
(make animation about this as shown on the book.)
Nouns
name of person, place or things
express meaning of concepts, qualities, organization, communities, sensations and events
Gender
In some languages, nouns are assigned to genders, such as masculine, feminine and neuter (or other combinations). The gender of a noun (as well as its number and case, where applicable) will often entail agreement in words that modify or are related to it. For example, in French, the singular form of the definite article is le with masculine nouns and la with feminines; adjectives and certain verb forms also change (with the addition of -e with feminines). Grammatical gender often correlates with the form of the noun and the inflection pattern it follows; for example, in both Italian and Russian most nouns ending -a are feminine. Gender also often correlates with the sex of the noun's referent, particularly in the case of nouns denoting people (and sometimes animals). Nouns do not have gender in Modern English, although many of them denote people or animals of a specific sex.
Classification of nouns Proper nouns and common nouns
A proper noun or proper name is a noun representing unique entities (such as Earth, India, Jupiter, Harry, or BMW), as distinguished from common nouns which describe a class of entities (such as city, animal, planet, person or car).
Countable and uncountable nouns
Count nouns or countable nouns are common nouns that can take a plural, can combine with numerals or counting quantifiers (e.g., one, two, several, every, most), and can take an indefinite article such as a or an (in languages which have such articles). Examples of count nouns are chair, nose, and occasion.
Mass nouns or uncountable (or non-count) nouns differ from count nouns in precisely that respect: they cannot take plurals or combine with number words or the above type of quantifiers. For example, it is not possible to refer to a furniture or three furnitures. This is true even though the pieces of furniture comprising furniture could be counted. Thus the distinction between mass and count nouns should not be made in terms of what sorts of things the nouns refer to, but rather in terms of how the nouns present these entities.[5][6]
Many nouns have both countable and uncountable uses; for example, beer is countable in "give me three beers", but uncountable in "he likes beer".
Collective nouns
Collective nouns are nouns that refer to groups consisting of more than one individual or entity, even when they are inflected for the singular. Examples include committee, herd, and school (of fish). These nouns have slightly different grammatical properties than other nouns. For example, the noun phrases that they head can serve as the subject of a collective predicate, even when they are inflected for.
Concrete nouns and abstract nouns
Concrete nouns refer to physical entities that can, in principle at least, be observed by at least one of the senses (for instance, chair, apple, Janet or atom). Abstract nouns, on the other hand, refer to abstract objects; that is, ideas or concepts (such as justice or hatred). While this distinction is sometimes exclusive, some nouns have multiple senses, including both concrete and abstract ones; consider, for example, the noun art, which usually refers to a concept (e.g., Art is an important element of human culture) but which can refer to a specific artwork in certain contexts (e.g., I put my daughter's art up on the fridge).
Some abstract nouns developed etymologically by figurative extension from literal roots. These include drawback, fraction, holdout, and uptake. Similarly, some nouns have both abstract and concrete senses, with the latter having developed by figurative extension from the former. These include view, filter, structure, and key.
Noun phrases
A noun phrase is a phrase based on a noun, pronoun, or other noun-like word (nominal)
optionally accompanied by modifiers such as determiners and adjectives. A noun phrase functions within a clause or sentence in a role such as that of subject, object, or complement of a verb or preposition. For example, in the sentence "The black cat sat on a dear friend of mine", the noun phrase the black cat serves as the subject, and the noun phrase a dear friend of mine serves as the complement of the preposition on.
Nouns form the largest English word class. There are many common suffixes used to form nouns from other nouns or from other types of words, such as -age (as in shrinkage), -hood (as in sisterhood), and so on, although many nouns are base forms not containing any such suffix (such as cat, grass, France). Nouns are also often created by conversion of verbs or adjectives, as with the words talk and reading (a boring talk, the assigned reading).
Unlike in many related languages, English nouns do not have grammatical gender (although many nouns refer specifically to male or female persons or animals, like mother, father, bull, tigress; see Gender in English). Nouns are sometimes classified semantically (by their meanings) as proper nouns and common nouns (Cyrus, China vs. frog, milk) or as concrete nouns and abstract nouns (book, laptop vs. heat, prejudice). A grammatical distinction is often made between count (countable) nouns such as clock and city, and non-count (uncountable) nouns such as milk and decor. Some nouns can function to be either countable or uncountable such the word "wine" (This is a good wine, I prefer red wine).
Countable nouns generally have singular and plural forms. In most cases the plural is formed from the singular by adding -[e]s (as in dogs, bushes), although there are also irregular forms (woman/women, foot/feet, etc.), including cases where the two forms are identical (sheep, series). For more details, see English plural.
Certain nouns can take plural verbs even though they are singular in form, as in The government were ... (where the government is considered to refer to the people constituting the government). This, a form of synesis, is more common in British than American English. See English plural: Singulars with collective meaning treated as plural.
English nouns are not marked for case as they are in some languages, but they have possessive forms, formed by the addition of -'s (as in John's, children's), or just an apostrophe (with no change in pronunciation) in the case of -[e]s plurals and sometimes other words ending with -s (the dogs' owners, Jesus' love). More generally, the ending can be applied to noun phrases (as in the man you saw yesterday's sister); see below. The possessive form can be used either

English grammar
as a determiner (John's cat) or as a noun phrase (John's is the one next to Jane's). For details, see English possessive.

Present Simple he/she/it
She

walks

her dog every day.
I/We/ You/They

live

in New York.
He often

goes

to the gym.

Positive
2. Also expresses a habit or a routine.
He

comes

from New Zealand.

She

works

with her husband.
1. Expresses a fact which is always true,
or true for a long time.
He/She/It

lives

in Hungary.
Negative
Yes/No questions
Short answer
Spelling of the third person singular
Pronouns
Prepositions
Where

do

I/We/You/They live?
Where

does

he/she/it live?
Question
He/She/It

doesn’t

live in Belgium.

I/We/You/They

don’t

live in New York.
Do

you/they like playing cards?
Does

he/she/it live in America?
Grammar - M1
No, I don’t.
Yes, I do.
Yes, he does.
Yes, it does.
No, she doesn’t.
No, we don’t.
Yes, we do.
Have – has
4.
Have
is irregular.
Play – plays
But if the verb ends in vowel +

y
,
Fly – flies, study – studies
the

y

changes to

ies
.
3. If the verb ends in a consonant +

y
,
Finish – finishes, watch – watches
2. If the verb ends in

s
,
sh
,
or

ch

add

es
.
Go – go
es
,
do

do
es
But
go
and
do
are different. They add

es
.
Wear – wears, speak – speaks, live – lives

1.
Most verbs add

s

in the third person singular.
the

y

does not change.
She
wants it.
She wants
it
.
I love
him
.
He likes
them
.
2.
Object
Pronouns come after the verb.
I
love him.
He
likes them.
1.
Subject
Pronouns come before the verb.
5. It’s just
after
six o’clock.
4. He works all
over
the world.
3. She earns
about
60,000 a year.
2. He works
on
an oil rig.
1. He works
for
a big company.
She
loves
listen
ing
to music.
I
like
cook
ing
.
Adverb of frequency
When
like
and
love
are
followed by another verb,
it’s usually the –ing
like/love + verb + -ing
Never
and
always
don’t come
at the beginning
or at the end of a sentence.
I walk to school
usually
.
Sometimes
we go out.
Sometimes
and
usually
can also come
I’m
never
hungry in the morning.
She’s
always
late.
We
always
stop work at 6:00.
I
usually
go to bed at about 11:00.
I
often
eat in a restaurant.
I
sometimes
work late.
These adverbs usually come
100% - always
25% - sometimes
0% - never
50% - often
75% - usually
She
never
goes out on Sunday.
They come after the verb
to be
.
We go out
sometimes
.
Usually
I walk to school.
I don’t
like
study
ing
.
Prepositions
I listen to music.
I go skiing on winter.
Do you relax at weekends?
I don’t go to bed until 4 in the morning.
On Saturday evenings I sing in clubs.
I stay late at work.
I’m at home on Saturdays.
I work until 10:00 at night.
I start work at 6:00.
I’m a singer with the band.
From Monday to Friday
I work in a bookstore.
On Saturday I have another job.
before the main verb.
at the
end
of a sentence.
at the
beginning
or
1
3
there is/are...
Yes, there are.
No, there isn’t.
Yes, there is.
Short answers
Is/Are there any photos?
Is/Are there a table?
Yes/No questions
There isn’t/aren’t any pictures.
There isn’t/aren’t a shower.
Negative
There is/are two bedrooms.
There is/are a sofa.
Positive
She has a lot of clothes.
a lot of
this/that/these/those
These
are my favourite.
That
’s horrible.
The flat is in Queen’s Road.
Prepositions
I don’t like
that
.
Can I have
this
?
This
is lovely.
3. We can use
this/that/these/those
without a noun.
Can you see
that
man?
2. We use
that/those
to talk about
I like
this
picture.
1. We use this/these to talk about
How many are
these
mugs?
Who are
those
children outside?
I don’t want
those
.
It’s on the third floor.
This is a picture of my sister.
There’s a window behind the desk.
There’s a fire at the other end.
What’s in your bag?
The bench is under the tree.
My flat is near the town centre.
There’s a bus stop outside the post office.
It’s opposite the park.
There’s a shop below the flat.
The chemist’s is next to a café.
that are near to us.
people/things
people/things that aren’t near to us.

Tenses
Verbs
Do, be,
and
have

There are two forms of
have
in the present.
Auxiliary verbs and tenses
2.
be
and the
passive voice
have
and the
perfect forms
Auxiliary verbs and negatives
Auxiliary verbs and questions
There is usually no
do/does/did

Short answers are very common in spoken English.
All these forms are covered again in later units.
There are also examples of the passive voice.
It has examples of the
Present Simple
and
Continuous
, the
Past Simple
and
Continuous
, and the
Present Perfect
.
Unit 1 aims to review what you know.
These are all the other verbs in the language,
for example:
play, run, help, think, want, go, see, eat, enjoy, live, die, swim,
etc.
Full verbs
Modal auxiliary verbs
These are used to form tenses,
Auxiliary verbs
do
,
be
, and
have
1. There are three classes of verbs in English.
questions and negatives.
and to show forms such as
Must
,
can
,
should
,
might
,
will
,
and
would

They ‘
help
’ other verbs,
For example,
must
expresses obligation;
they have their own meanings.
but unlike
do
,
be
, and
have
,
can
expresses ability
He
has
a lot of problems. They
have
three children.
have
We
are
in class at the moment. They
were
at home yesterday.
be
She
does
a lot of business in Eastern Europe.
I
do
my washing on Saturdays.
do
full verbs with their own meanings.
can also be used as
She
hasn’t got
a car.
Have
you
got
a flat?
I’
ve got
a job.
have + got
He doesn’t
have
a car.
Do you
have
a flat?
I
have
a job.
have
as a full verb
I’d like to be lying on the beach right now.
I’ve been learning English for two years.
They were going to work. (Past Continuous)
He’s washing his hair. (Present Continuous)
Be
+
verb
+ -
ing

1
be
and the
continuous
forms
and temporary activities.
which describe activities in progress
is used to make continuous verb forms
(Present Perfect Continuous)
(Continuous infinitive)
There is an introduction to the passive on p. 135
This homework needs
to be done
tonight.
The house
has been redecorated
.
My car
was stolen
yesterday.
Paper
is made
from wood. (Present Simple passive)
Be
+
past participle
is used to form the passive.
(Passive infinitive)
(Present Perfect passive)
(Past Simple passive)

completed before
a
time
in the
past
’.
Past Perfect
means
Present Perfect
means ‘
completed before now
’.
so
Perfect
means ‘
completed before
’,
I’d like
to have met
Napoleon.
(Perfect infinitive)
(Past Perfect)
she
had had
some bad news.
She
was
crying because
(Present Perfect)
He
has worked
in seven different countries.
is used to make perfect verb forms.
Have
+
past participle
He didn’t go on holiday.
They don’t like skiing.
She doesn’t work in a bank.
We haven’t seen the play.
I wasn’t thinking.
He isn’t working.
Negative
He went on holiday.
They like skiing.
She works in a bank.
We’ve seen the play.
I was thinking.
He’s working.
Positive
use
don’t/doesn’t/didn’t
.
If there is no auxiliary verb,
add –
n’t
to the auxiliary verb.
1 To make a negative,
Why didn’t they go out?
What does he want?
Do I know you?
Has Peter been to China?
Where were you born?
What is she wearing?
They didn’t go out.
He wants ice-cream.
I know you.
Peter’s been to China.
You were born in Paris.
She’s wearing jeans.
Question
use
do/does/did
.
If there is no auxiliary verb,
the
auxiliary verb
.
invert
the
subject
and
1 To make a
question
,
How did you break the window?
What did you do to your eye?
What flavor ice-cream do you want?
Who broke the window?
What happened to your eye?
Who wants ice-cream?
in subject questions.
Subject Questions
without the question word.
is like positive sentence structure
Notice that this structure
Question word + subject + (auxiliary) + main verb
Questions
we ask to find out
using '
who', 'what'
and
'which'
.
These questions are asked
about the
subject
.
Yes, she did.
No, she doesn’t.
No, I haven’t.
Yes, I am.
Did Mary phone?
Does she like walking?
Have you had breakfast?
Are you coming with us?
Short answer
Auxiliary verbs
and
short answers
In the Present and Past Simple, use do/does/did.
To make a short answer, repeat the auxiliary verb.
If you just say Yes or No, it can sound
rude
.
M3
Unit 2
No, there aren’t.
4
Present Simple
He/She/It: add
s
or
es
,
Short answer
Spelling of
he/she/it
forms
Adverb of Frequency
Present Continuous
Spelling of
verb
+
-ing
State verbs
Verbs of thinking and opinions
Verbs of emotions and feelings
Verbs of having and being
This book
belongs
to Jane.
Verbs of the senses
We often use
can
when the
subject
is a
person
.
2. Some of these verbs can be used in
The Passive
Use
2.
By
an the
agent
are often omitted
3. The
passive
is associated with
4. In informal language, we often use
Where
do
you work?
They
don’t
work full time.
I
work
from 9 – 5pm.
I/we/you/they.
The form is the same for
Where
does
she live?
He
doesn’t
work at weekends.
in
questions
and
short answer
.
and use
does/doesn’t

No,
he

doesn’t
.
Does he have a car?
Yes,
we do
.
Do you live in Bristol?
I
live
in a flat near the centre of town.
He
works
in a bank.
3. A fact that is true for a long time (a state).
My daughter
has
brown eyes.
Ronaldo
comes
from Brazil.
2. A fact that is always true.
She
drinks
ten cups of coffee a day.
I
go
to work by car.
1. An action that happens again and again (habit).
The Present Simple is used to express:
buys, says, plays, enjoys
But verbs that end in a
vowel
+
-y
only add
–s
.
carries, flies, worries, tries
consonant
+
-y
change the
–y
to
ies
.
3. Verbs that end in a
ki
ss
es, wa
sh
es, wat
ch
es, fi
x
es, g
o
es
–ss, -sh, -ch, -x
, and
–o
.
2. Add
–es
to verbs that end in
wants, eats, helps, drives
1. Most verbs add
–s
to the base
form of the verb.
I go shopping with friends
usually
.
We play cards
sometimes
.
Usually
I go shopping with friends.
Sometimes
we play cards.
3.
Sometimes
and
usually
can also
We’re
rarely
at home at weekends.
They’re
usually
here by now.
I
rarely
see Peter these days.
2. They go
before
the
main verb
,
Always
Usually
Often
Sometimes
Not often
Hardly ever
Never
1. We often use
adverb of frequency

with the
Present Simple
.
Rarely
0%
15%
10%
5%
100%
75%
50%
25%
I
usually
start at 9:00
but after the verb
to be
.
go at the
beginning
or at the
end
.
Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.
Are
you
going
by train?
Short answer
What
’s
he
doing
?
I’
m

not

enjoying
my new job.
He’
s cooking
lunch.
Am/is/are
+
verb
+
ing

I’
m playing
tennis.
They
are
n’t

working
today.
Where
are
you
living
?
We
’re meeting
at 1:00
I
’m having
lunch with Glenda tomorrow.
4. A planned future arrangement.
until I find a place of my own.
I
’m living
with friends
but he
’s working
as a
Peter is a student,
3. A temporary activity.
I
’m doing
a French evening class this year.
Don’t take the book. Jane’
s reading
it.
but is happening around now.
at the moment of speaking
2. An activity that is not necessarily happening
You can’t speak to Lisa. She
’s having
a bath.
Don’t turn the TV off. I’
m watching
it.
1. An activity that is happening now.
The
Present Continuous
is used to express:
waiter during the holidays.
outside the restaurant.
showing
playing

it is not doubled.
If the final consonant is –y or –w
jogging

planning

running

getting

shopping
double
the
consonant
.
with one
vowel
and one
consonant
,
3. Verbs of one syllable,
writing
agreeing

Verbs that end in
–ee
But lie –
lying
smoking

going

1. Most verbs add –
ing
to the base form of the verb.
seeing
don’t drop the
–e.
coming

hoping
2. Verbs that end in one
–e
lose the
–e
,
eating
visiting
wearing

not activities.
states or conditions that are facts,
Their meanings are related to
Present Simple.
that are usually only used in the
1. There are certain groups of verbs
I
know
his face, but I
forget
his name.
Do you
understand
what I mean?
I
believe
you.
imagine
doubt

believe

agree
expect

suppose
understand
think
know

remember

forget
promise

mean
realize
deserve
guess
I
don’t care
.
Do you
want
to go out?
I
like
black coffee.
adore

love

dislike
wish
want

prefer

like
hope

care
hate
He
has
a lot of money.
How much
does
it
cost
?
resemble
involve
contain
belong

own
have

possess

matter
need

depend

weigh

cost

seem

fit

Can
you
smell
something burning?
I
can hear
someone crying.
My hair
feels
soft.
The food
smells
good.
look hear taste smell feel sound
3
(activity)
I’m tasting the soup to see if it needs salt
(activity)
Are you seeing Nigel tomorrow?
(activity)
She’s having a bad day.
(mental activity)
We’re
thinking
of going to the cinema.
The soup tastes awful (state)
I see what you mean. (= understand)
He
has
a lot of money (possession)
I
think
you’re right.
Compare:
an
activity
, not a
state
.
In continuous, the verb expresses
but with a change of meaning.
the
Present Continuous,

(opinion)
(Passive infinitive)
I’d love to be introduced to a film star.
(Present Perfect)
I’
ve been invited
to a wedding.
(Past Simple)
Were
you
taken
to visit the cathedral?
(Present Simple)
My car
is insured
with ASM.
Are you
being served
? (Present Continuous)
changes to give different
tenses
in the
passive
.
The tenses of the verb
to be

to be
+
past participle
Form
depending on what we are more interested in.
We choose the
active
or the
passive

the same sentence in the
active
.
The passive is
not
another way of expressing
was written
by William Shakespeare.
Hamlet
, the most famous play in English literature,
while he was living in London,
Shakespeare
wrote
Hamlet
in 1601
from the
subject
to the
object
of
active sentences
.
1. Passive sentences move the focus
I
was fined
$100 for speeding.
.....the
agent
is obvious:
This bridge
was built
in 1886.
.....the
agent
is not important:
I
was burgled
last night.
...the
agent
is not known:
in
passive
sentences if...
have been removed
from the library.
It
has been noticed
that reference books
to refrain from smoking.
Customers
are requested

notices and announcements.
It is often used in
an
impersonal, formal
style.
The house is being redecorated at the moment. (activity happening now)
Computers are used everywhere. (fact that is always true)
My car is serviced every six months. (habit)
The uses are the same in the passive as in the active.
Use
This road is being widened. Are you being served?
Present Continuous Passive (am/is/are being + past participle)
Is service included in the bill?
Most workers are paid monthly.
Present Simple Passive (am/is/are + past participle)
2.6 Present Simple and Present Continuous passive Form
I’m exhausted! I’ve been working hard all day.
We were extremely worried about you.
I’m very interested in modern art.
Many past participles are used as adjectives.
They’re building a new department
You can buy stamps in lots of shops,
In this way, we can avoid using the passive.
to refer to people in general or
you, we, and they
to no person in particular.
not just post offices.
We speak English in this shop.
store in the city centre.
Verbs - Finite / Non Finite
I travelled to Germany to improve my German. (To improve is in the infinitive form).
For example:-
A non-finite verb has no subject, tense or number. The only non-finite verb forms are the infinitive (indicated by to), the gerund or the participle.
Non-Finite Verbs
I live in Germay. (I is the subject - live describes what the subject does - live is a finite verb).
For example:
A finite verb (sometimes called main verbs)
Finite Verbs
or number (singular / plural).
It shows tense (past / present etc)
the main verb in a sentence.
this means that it can be
is a verb that has a subject,
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