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Culture and national traditions of Kazakhstan
Transcript of Culture and national traditions of Kazakhstan
The Kazakh people are rich in traditions. From birth through old age and death, every step of their lives has historically been marked with celebration. Even their funeral ceremonies have their own special symbolism.
If you were in Kazakhstan, but did not see the white Kazakh yurt on the green meadows of jaylyau, you can not feel and enjoy the real life of Kazakhs and their culture. Yurt is one of the oldest and greatest inventions of Eurasian nomads. At all times Yurt was a practical and convenient, portable accommodation.
Kazakh national dress varies by regions.
The main tradition of Kazakhs, which eventually transformed into a feature of national character, is hospitality. In the Kazakh society, there is an unofficial law voiced in ancient times, which says “Meet a guest as the God's messenger”.
Hospitality is considered a sacred duty in the Kazakh society. At all times, the steppe inhabitants did their best to please their guest. Therefore, each traveler knew that he or she would be welcomed anywhere in the Kazakh land.
Construction of a Yurt
Yurt is a round-shaped, sophisticated construction with a dome. If explain its structure in simple words, it consists of three main parts and many other smaller parts.
Interesting facts about Kazakh cuisine:
Main ingredients in traditional Kazakh cuisine are meat, flour and milk products, though nowadays many other ingredients are common in the cuisine.
The main dish of Kazakh cuisine, with which owners welcome their guests is besbarmak. Name of this dish is translated from Kazakh as “five fingers” because of a manner to eat the dish by hand.
Kazakh music and musical instruments
Kazakh national music has a long and rich history and traditions. We can distinguish
an akyn (a bard)
a zhirau (an epos-teller)
an anshi (a singer)
a kuyshi (an instrumentalist)
an ertekshi (a fairy-story-teller)
a ku (a humorist)
among the Kazakh national musicians.
Small musical compositions played on dombra or kobyz are called “kuy”. Traditionally kuys are based on the improvisation of a performer. But there are many well-known kuys that were passed on from generation to generation. The most ancient are Korkut’s kuys. They were created more than 1200 years ago.
The Kazakh people have more than 25 main musical instruments – dombra, kobyz, sybyzgy, daulpaz and others.
Basic and authentic customs, which are widespread in the Kazakh society.
1. Traditions and customs associated with the guest reception: Konakasy, Konakkade, Erulik, Toy dastarkhan;
2. Traditions and customs associated with gift giving: Suyіnshі, “At mingizipshapan zhabu”, Baygazy;
3. Traditions and customs associated with mutual aid: Asar, Zhylu, Belkoterer;
4. Traditions and customs associated with birth and upbringing of the child: Shіldehana, Besіkke salu, Kyrkynan shygaru, Tusau kesu, Sundetke otyrgyzu;
5. Traditions and customs related to marriage: kudalyk, Kyz uzatu, kelіn tusіru, Betashar.
Kazakh yurt is a product of traditional Kazakhstan culture based on the ecological balance and sustainability, a product of a culture that does not seek to dominate and change the nature, but seeks to learn its laws and follow them in a daily life. Perceiving the nature as a natural shelter, nomads created their house by the own laws of the nature.
Three main parts include Shanyrak – top of the Yurt, Kerege – walls carcass and Uwyk – a carcass part from Kerege to the Shanyrak. The carcass is usually covered with pieces of felt from outside and decorated with carpets from inside.
Kazakhs are believed to be among the top countries in tea consumption, almost every meal is followed by tea in Kazakh families.
Kazakh cuisine is usually not spicy.
There are many high calorie dishes in the traditional Kazakh cuisine.
Besbarmak's main ingredients are: meat (lamb or horse meat), pasta (it is cut into small squares), as well as herbs (dill , parsley, cilantro, etc.).
Kazakh national costumes
Men wear chapans, a kind of dressing gown with a belt, made of velvet and richly embroidered. They cover their heads with a soft skullcap (tobetai), a tall felt cap (kalpak) or a fox-fur hat with earflaps (malakai).
The women's national costume consists of a white cotton or colored silk dress, a velvet waistcoat with embroidery and a cap or a silk scarf. Elderly women wear a hood made of white cloth with a hole for the face (the kimeshek). Brides wear a tall pointed, richly decorated hat, topped with feathers (saukele).
One of the greatest Kazakh composers was Kurmangazy. He created more than 60 kuys perfect by their art of expressiveness. The works and personality of Kurmangazy evoked great love in people.
These are usually performed on horseback and are an opportunity to witness the Kazakhs' outstanding riding skills. Kazaksha kures (Kazakh wrestling), baiga (horse racing over 25, 50 or 100 km), kokpar (a sort of polo game played with a dead goat), kyz-kuu (catch the girl) and alty bakan (six-pole swing).