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Rising Above: Using drones for risk assessments

California Tree Failure Report Program - Filoli Center, Woodside, CA January 11, 2018
by

Dan Staley

on 25 July 2018

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Transcript of Rising Above: Using drones for risk assessments

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BACKGROUND
MEDIUM SCALE
PARCEL TO CANOPY
CONCLUSION
LARGE SCALE
UNCOMMON ASSESSMENTS
INTRODUCTION
FINE SCALE
FROM VEIN TO LIMB
Drone Technology for the Turf and Landscape Industry
Rocky Mountain Regional Turfgrass Association
December 7, 2017 10:00 - 11:00
Dan Staley
Arbor Drone, LLC
https://arbordrone.net/
dan@arbordrone.net
All presentations on Prezi.com (search 'Dan Staley')
Rising Above: Using drones for risk assessments
CA Tree Failure Report Program
January 11, 2018 10:15 - 11:00
Dan Staley
Arbor Drone, LLC
https://arbordrone.net/
dan@arbordrone.net
All presentations on Prezi.com (search 'Dan Staley')
Rising Above: Using drones for risk assessments
Rising Above: Using drones for risk assessments
Dan Staley, Arbor Drone LLC
SHOULD YOU INVEST?
Objectives
Explore the question: 'are drones right for
you?'
Look at realistic capabilities by scale
Look at cost throughout presentation
Demonstration during lunch (weather
permitting)
Big Picture
Hype Cycle
Aircraft Types
Rotor-wing and Fixed-wing
Paul Aiken, Boulder Daily Camera
Rotor-wing
Flight time: ~20-25 minutes per battery
AIRCRAFT, LEGAL
Coverage per battery: ~35 acres, ~8-10 trees for
scouting/assessments, 1 residential parcel
Costs (aircraft, case, batteries, accessories, etc):
New: $1500 (Phantom 4) - $4500 (Inspire 2)
Used: minimum 30% less.
People commonly upgrade - viable option
Insurance:
Per flight or regular policy ($8 - $350/yr.)
Fixed-wing
Flight time: ~40-60 minutes per battery
Coverage: ~90+ acres
Costs (aircraft, case, batteries, package, etc):
New: $3500 (eBee) - $10,000 (fancy sensor)
Used: minimum 30% less.
Insurance:
Per flight or regular policy
Fixed-wing Caveats
Currently best for ag operations
(Where do you land in a city?)
Current laws preclude urban forest operations and
fixed-wing use
We need Beyond Visual Line of Sight laws
(BVLOS) for fixed-wing and UF jobs
When BVLOS is here: inventories, large-scale UF
health, pest/disease tracking, disaster response
Legal Stuff
Must be certified to fly commercially
14 CFR 107 governs commercial flight ('Part 107')
$150 test fee, re-take every two years, no flight
test (!)
Study time ~10-15 hours
Several good, inexpensive test prep materials to
choose from, many good free study materials
too
Cameras & Sensors
Visual: every good drone has a good camera
Current: 1080p, 4K video at 60 fps
1 image = 12-16 mp, ~4-8 mb
A few accessories available for zoom ($$)
Multispectral: entry level for advanced plant
health analysis
Mostly ag., I'm the first for UF operations (not
a one-person show)
$3500 (off-shelf) - $9500 (custom config.)
plus analysis cost
Privacy
FAA currently silent on privacy laws
Up to us to respect privacy concerns of others
Federal law somewhat hazy
Current law: private property extends to 83 feet
above ground level
No Drone Zones: FAA regulates airspace, not
cities. Cities/others can regulate where you
take off and land
Large Scale Assessments
Near-future operations - a new opportunity for
expertise
PSB - EAB - HLB or general condition of forest
At the large property, Utility Vegetation
Management (UVM) or municipal scale
This is a team operation
You will be the Subject Matter Expert, analyzing
data that nerds don't know what to do with
Example: Emerald Ash Borer in Denver
In Boulder Co., spreading
Denver looking for baseline conditions for
eventual infestation (1-3 years?)
Can we use drones and remote sensing to create
a process to detect EAB early?
Can we ID species with sensor? Can we
demonstrate usefulness for disaster
response?
GTM Research
Results
Can detect EAB very early
Can ID ~14 spp. to ~80-85% accuracy
Developed a tool that can closely match overall
canopy health to inventory condition class
Teaching 'machine learning' to software to
automate processes
EAB Early Detection
Developed a tool to detect unique spectral signature
of EAB
Also must deal with backgrounds - turf, mulch, junipers -
to ensure their reflectance doesn't confound signal
Plant does not make anthocyanins (stress hormones) in
early stage infestation - similar to anthracnose
Middle stage makes tons of anthocyanins
Visual
Spectral
Species ID
Overall Canopy Health
Parcel Scale
What is the resolution needed for scouting and
assessments?
The following images have resolution of ~2 cm/
pixel at ground level, ~5mm at close branch
level:


What is the resolution needed for
detailed assessments?


Fine Scale
(
V
ertical
T
ake
O
ff and
L
anding on the way, soon)
Bass diffusion model modified by Staley
Visual
Should You Invest?
Depends upon scale
Large scale:
Should You Invest?
Depends upon scale
Medium scale:
Should You Invest?
Depends upon scale
Small scale:
Near-future will see a great opportunity
UVM, inventories, pest and disease at city-
scale (disaster response)
Laws must change (1-2 years BVLOS?)
Technology will make cheaper and better
equipment
Technology good enough today
Scouting, assessments, bids, anything
down to ~branch size can be done
Return On Investment: 15 trees/hour for
assessments
Diagnosing fruiting bodies, egg cases,
growth increments, insect spp.?
Resolution not there yet cheaply. 1-2 years
before affordable quality gimbal/camera
(+ aftermarket) available [ ~$6000 today ]
DJI Zenmuse gimbal platform, in future,
likely Canon, another company offering
gimbal as well
In Short...
Technology there for some tasks, not for fine
detail less than ~5 cm but will be soon
In Short...
UVM, inventories, pest and disease at large
scales will need Subject Matter Experts (you)
Larger scales: technology is there, not all laws
in place for large-scale operations. Laws
being tested now with telemetry to ID
aircraft
Sensors get cheaper, smaller every year
Reflectance:
Study latest findings (refs at end of
presentation)
Botany and plant reactions, which
wavelengths give useful information
Thank You!
The following images have resolution
of ~5-10 mm/pixel at close branch
level:
Books - be careful: anything before ~ 2010 likely too old.
I have, will be dated in ~3-4 years
The current standard, awaiting to be replaced by
a book using UAV data and imagery (soon?)
Good overview PowerPoint
https://landsat.usgs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Thenkabail-LST-hyperspectral-final.pdf
(search: hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation pdf)
Follow the Industry
Commercial UAV News
sUAS News – The Business of Drones
DRONELIFE
https://dronelife.com/
https://www.expouav.com/
https://www.suasnews.com/
At the parcel to tree to limb scale: can start
today
Full transcript