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AIDS

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by

Kin Long Yuen

on 21 November 2013

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Transcript of AIDS

AIDS
CAUSES
INFLUENCES
PREVENTION
TREATMENTS
A
cquired
I
mmuno
d
eficiency
S
yndrome
Infected with HIV
HIV
CONTROLLERS
ACUTE
INFECTION
ELITE
CONTROLLER
CLINICAL
LATENCY
AIDS
(<200 CD4+ T cell per µL of blood)

Sex
Approx. 75%
Unprotected heterosexual / homosexual contacts
Anal Intercourse
Oral Sex
Sexual Assault
Compensated Dating
Lack Sexual Education
Body Fluids
Approx. 7%
Selling Blood
Transfusion of contaminated blood

Drug Abuse
Needle-sharing during intravenous drug use
Medical injection with unsterilized equipment
Mother-to-child
Approx. 0.4%
Pregnancy
Through placenta
Delivery
Through vaginal fluid
Breast-feeding
Through Breast milk
Biological
Acute Infection & Clinical Latency:
Influenza-like illness
Fever
Large tender lymph node
Throat Inflammation
Rash
Headache
Sores of the mouth and genitals
Opportunistic Infection
AIDS:
Tuberculosis
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
Fungal Infection
Sociological
Larger Government Expense
High Cost of treatment and medicine
Patients may loss jobs
Rely on government
Discrimination
Worsened social cohesion
Broken Homes
Affect children's mental growth
Affect family members' mental health
Psychological
Anger
Grief and depression
Guilt
Anxiety,Fear and Uncertainty
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) / Cocktail therapy

Counselling
huge emotional change
tragedy
able to live a normal life
possible attitude towards life
Acute Infection
Clinical Latency
Last for 3->20 years (Avg: 8 years)
Few or no symptoms at first
Viral load is low at first and increases steadily
CD4+ T Cells decrease generally
Fever, weight loss, gastrointestinal problems and muscle pains
The initial period followed the contraction of HIV
Usually 1-2 weeks ( may vary )
Viral load increases rapidly
HIV enters cell and use the cell's machinery to reproduce
CD4+ T cells decrease
Influenza-like illness


Statistics
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
Tuberculosis
Fungal Infections
2013 April - June Hong Kong
40.9%
27.3%
13.6%
Sex Education
By Education Bureau
Promote proper values and attitudes towards sex
General Studies at primary level, Junior Secondary Science, NSS Liberal Studies
Community Programs
World AIDS Campaign
Advertisement
HIV Antibodies Testing
Present of HIV Antibodies = Positive Result
Provided by Public Health Laboratory Centre of Centre for Health Protection or other community organisations
Free of charge, Anonymous, Confidential
Regular testing (every 6-12 months)
Most at-risk populations
Men who have sex with men (MSM)
Female sex workers (FSW) and their clients
Injecting drug users (IDU)
Spouse/regular partner of HIV infected

Window period (Usually within 3 months)
HIV/AIDS Voluntary Reporting System
Started from 1984
For doctors and laboratory reporting
Collect, match and analysis data
Demographic characteristics, suspected routes of transmission, AIDS defining illnesses of the infected
All collected data treated in strict confidentiality

Understanding the HIV epidemiology in Hong Kong
Used for global analysis
HAART
Mix of drugs
Prevent drug resistance
Combination of at least three active antiretroviral medications (ARVs)
Reduce the viral load in the blood
Rebuild and maintain immune system
Highly effective therapy but cannot cure AIDS
WORLD Statistic
> 35 million people living with HIV/ AIDS (3.3 million under 15)

Nearly 6,300 people contract HIV everyday - 262 every hour

In 2013, 1.4 million people died from AIDS, (210,000 under 15)

Women are least twice more likely to acquire HIV from men during sexual intercourse

Women in reproductive year (15- 49)
Leading cause of death: AIDS
CHINA Statistic
Report in 2005
Drug users

Through transfusion of blood products

Infected by blood

Sex workers and clients

Partners of HIV-positive individual

Men who have sex with men (MSM)

Infected through sexual activity

Mother-to-child transmission
288,000

69,000

357,000

127,000

109,000

47,000

283,000

9,000
44.3%

10.7%

55%

19.6%

16.7%

7.3%

43.6%

1.4%
Both infected and caregivers or family members of infected
REFERENCE
The Psychological Impact of HIV/AIDS: People are more than statistics
http://org.elon.edu/summit/essays/essay4.pdf

EMOTIONAL EFFECTS OF HIV AND AIDS
http://www.livestrong.com/article/87706-emotional-effects-hiv-aids/

Counseling in AIDS/HIV
http://www.pitt.edu/~super7/3011-4001/3861.ppt

Sociological studies of AIDS
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-AIDSsociologicalstudiesof.html

Methodological problems in the study of psychosocial influences on the AIDS process
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0277953689902761

2005 Update on the HIV/AIDS Epidemic and Response in China
http://data.unaids.org/publications/External-Documents/RP_2005ChinaEstimation_25Jan06_en.pdf

statistic of women and HIV/AIDS
http://www.amfar.org/About-HIV-and-AIDS/Facts-and-Stats/Statistics--Women-and-HIV-AIDS/

Virtual AIDS Office of Hong Kong, HIV Surveillance and Epidemiology
http://www.info.gov.hk/aids/chinese/surveillance/main.htm

UNAIDS, Epidemiology publications: Results, guidelines, supplements
http://www.unaids.org/en/dataanalysis/knowyourresponse/globalaidsprogressreporting/

Advances in HIV Treatment: How AIDS Cocktails Work
http://www.webmd.com/hiv-aids/features/hiv-aids-treatment

HIV Surveillance and Epidemiology Latest Statistics
http://www.info.gov.hk/aids/english/surveillance/stdaidsupdate.htm
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