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Plate Tectonics

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lauren meadows

on 4 November 2015

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Transcript of Plate Tectonics

Historical Data
Identifying Plate Boundaries
There are three types of plate boundaries: convergent, divergent and transform boundaries.
Transform boundaries are when two plates slide past one another.
Convection Currents
Convection currents are caused by very hot material at the deepest part of the mantle rising, then cooling, sinking again and then heating, rising and repeating the cycle over repeatedly.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge was created by convection currents that pushed hot mantle up, creating the ridge.
Plate Boundary Identification
Transform Boundaries: occurs when two plates slide past each other. As the plates jam against each other, earthquakes happen through a wide boundary zone.

Divergent Boundaries: occurs when two boundaries move away from each other. Freguent earthquakes are caused along the rift.

Convergent Boundaries: occurs when two plates come together. The impact of the colliding plates causes the plates to form a rugged mountain range.
Resulting Features or Events
Earthquakes: When plate tectonics slide past one another suddenly or movement in the outer crust. The biggest earthquake recorded was known as The Great Chilean Earthquake. This was a 9.5 on the magnitude scale. Approximately 1,655 died and 3,000 were injured.

Rift Valley: lowland valley that forms where Erath's tectonic plates move apart (rift). Rift valleys can be found on land and on the seafloor.

Tsunamis: a series of waves caused by earthquakes. Results of a 2011 tsunami in Japan: leaking radioactive water, 230,000 people lost their homes and $300 billion in damages.
Modern Data
Modern Data supports the plate tectonics theory because now a days we have the GPS and it has been the most useful for studying the earth´s crustal movements. This supports the theory because we know the creep rate at the San Andreas fault is approximately 28 to 34 millimeters, or a little over 1 inch, per year. Scientists create large networks of GPS recievers near plate boundaries so they know how much they move.
Another piece of evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics is the robotic studies of the sea floor. We use sound waves that use pressure to move through gases, liquids and solids. Light cannot be used as it is absorbed by water very quickly; usually lighting no further than 30 meters. So by using sound scientists can find out different properties about the sea floor.
Plate Tectonics
Nuclear Waste Storage Site
Ice Sheet Storage, Antarctica
By: Amelia Perdue, Lauren Meadows and Kirsten Moore
There are many pieces of historical evidence that suggest the continents were once together. One piece of evidence is that there are similar fossils of species found on continents that are nowhere near touching. This then states that because the fossils are similar, and because they are found on continents that are nowhere near each other, that these continents where once connected in those areas.
National Oceanography Centre Website
United States Geological Survey
Ice sheet storage for nuclear waste is beneficial because it is away from most people, with only 4000 people living there in the summer, and 1000 people living there in the winter. The containers own heat would melt a shaft in the ice, and it would rest one or two kilometers below the surface, where it will rest on a rock/ice interface. Earthquakes could cause little problems because they don't occur very occasionally. With only two volcanic eruptions in the last 50 years, there is little chance that they will cause a problem.
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