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Theoretical Models of Consanguineous Marriage in Bangladesh

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Emily Voss

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of Theoretical Models of Consanguineous Marriage in Bangladesh

Independent Variables
36 IV were selected to be tested in this analysis
Dowry

Respondent's feast amount spent at wedding
Respondent's gift amount spent at wedding
Respondent's total amount spent at wedding


Respondent's age at marriage
Respondent's parent's relation
Husband's parents' relation
Respondent's parents type of marriage
Husband's parents type of marriage
Respondent's type of marriage

Theoretical Models of Consanguineous Marriage in Bangladesh

Introduction
Study Population
quantitative data collected by Dr. Shenk in 2010 in Matlab, Bangladesh
speak Bengali
Matlab population primarily Muslim (87%) with the remaining residents mostly Hindus
30% of the population has no formal education, with 66% having some secular education
Agricultural labor, owner-workers (farmers), and business were the three most common occupations amongst male head of households with 15%, 16% and 18%, respectively
Dowry is common in Matlab, being paid in 59.3% of marriage in 2009
944 women were randomly selected and surveyed between the ages of 19 and 67
12% of sample population had CM
Methods
Binary Logistic Regression
Dependent Variable: Respondent Marriage Relation
(0-non kin, 1-kin)
Results
Models
Discussion
Why is consanguineous marriage, especially cousin marriage, so common in Bangladesh?
Do cousin marriage practices in Bangladesh match the theoretically predicted patterns from other cultures around the world?
How and why are cousin marriage practices changing in South Asia?
Dummies, Logged Variables and Consumer Price Index
Male occupation variables were split into three different categories: agricultural/fishing, artisan/day labor (without education), and education/industrialization occupations
Statistics analyzed
90% confidence level shown through the p-value of .1 or lower
Nagelkerke R square-variables retained if they increased the R-squared by at least .05
Beta of the predictor used to show strength of the relationship between IVs and DV and whether the relationship was positive or negative

Table 3
highest Nagelkerke R squared was 0.013
Significant:
Table 4
Dowry
Consanguineous marriage occurs due to the economic benefits of being able to pay a lower dowry, or completely avoid paying dowry
Cultural Traditions
Despite outside changes to the external economic or social environment, socio-cultural traditions continue and the practice of consanguineous marriage consequently remains strong
Interpretation
Limitations
Time
Possibly skewed dowry data due to some families paying zero and also the shift from dowry to brideprice in the society
Next steps
Include variables such as religion, parent's age at marriage, residential patterns, revised dowry amounts and secondary/tertiary male occupations
Obtain qualitative data on this topic through NSF REU grant
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
Industrialization
Shift to more industrial society will cause a decrease in consanguineous marriage
Industrialization model across cultures
Dowry model across cultures
Cultural Tradition model across cultures
Interactions between Models
Industrialization
Cultural
Dowry
Presence of dowry
A study done in North India, as well as one in Bangladesh, show that women who have CM are less likely to bring a dowry into marriage. A study in South India, however, showed a possible decrease in CM due to the cultural increase of dowry as the male's family would seek out a non-relative bride
Consanguineous marriage (CM), or close kin marriage, is common practice in parts of the world, but the majority of the literature is biologically focused
Variables:
Occupation
Land Ownership
Education
Urbanization
Residence Patterns
Family Size
Emily Voss
A study done in Spain and two other in Pakistan and Nepal show that the maintenance of property is a major determinant for consanguineous marriage. Another study done in Pakistan showed that it was not a determinant.
Studies done in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Lebanon show a negative correlation between female education level and CM. In Beirut there was also a negative correlation between male education and CM
A study done in Chile showed almost double the amount of consanguineous marriages in areas than urban. Multiple studies around the world support this, but one in Lebanon showed no significant difference.
Urbanization
Education
Landownership
In India, CM couples frequently lived in extended families.
Family Size
A strong positive correlation was found between family size and CM in 20th century North American Anabaptist groups
Occupation
Literature on occupation was divided in India, Beirut and Pakistan. Both positive and negative correlations were seen.
Variables:
Presence of dowry
Amount of dowry paid
Lower dowry
Studies from Bangladesh, India and Pakistan CM was associated with paying a lower dowry
Variables:
religion
parental influence (arranged and CM parents)
marriage compatibility
Religion
In Beirut, CM was more common amongst husbands from the majority Muslim area of the city than the majority Christian area.
In South Asia and the Middle East, studies have shown that parental influence is a strong cause for CM
Parental Influence
Compatibility
In Pakistan, easier transition for the bride was seen as a reason for CM. In India, however, divorce and separation was more common in CM
Correlates
Type of marriage was split into: arranged marriage, arranged/love marriage, and love marriage
Dummies
Logged Variables
respondent’s parent’s income, husband’s parent’s income, current family’s income, respondent’s feast amount spent at wedding, respondent’s gift amount spent at wedding and respondent’s total amount spent at wedding
Bivariate Results
Majority of significant variables were from Industrial model; remainder were from Cultural Traditions. This suggests an interaction between models
Cultural Tradition predictors (parental influence and age at marriage) align with literature
Industrial predictors (occupation and education) did not always align with literature
-
Respondent’s Age at Marriage
Respondent’s Education level Respondent Employment
Husband's number of sisters living
Respondent Arranged Marriage
+
Husband’s Mother’s Employment
Husband’s Parents’ Relation
Respondent Arranged/Love Marriage
Residential Patterns
Multivariate Results
higher fertility rates
higher morality/morbidity rates
young age at marriage

Acknowledgments
Undergraduate Research Mentorship Program
My advisor Dr. Mary Shenk
Dr. Palmer and Dr. Panchanathan
References
Control variables
Respondent's age
Husband's age
Respondent's parents' annual income
Husband's parents' annual income
Current family's annual income

Industrialization
Respondent's father's education
Respondent's mother's education
Husband's father's education
Husband's mother's education
Respondent's education
Husband's education
Respondent's parents own cropland
Husband's parents own cropland
Number of men from marital bari working in Dhaka
Number of men from marital bari working abroad
Number of labor migrants in the home
Cultural Traditions
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Bittles A.H., Mason W.M., Greene J., Rao N.A. Reproductive behavior and health in consanguineous marriages (1991) Science, 252 (5007) , pp. 789-794

Buttenheim, Alison M. and Jenna Nobles. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia. Population Studies , Vol. 63, No. 3 (NOVEMBER 2009), pp. 277-294.

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Caldwell, J.C., P. H. Reddy and Pat Caldwell. The Causes of Marriage Change in South India (1983).Population Studies , Vol. 37, No. 3 , pp. 343-361

El-Kheshen, G. Saadat, M. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Shi'a populations of Lebanon (2013) Journal of Biosocial Science. 45 (5) pp 675-682

Do, Q., Iyer, S., & Joshi, S. (2013). The economics of consanguineous marriages. The
Review of Economics and Statistics, 95(3), 904.



Hakim A. Comments on "Consanguineous Marriages in Pakistan". Pakistan Development Review, 33 (4 Pt2), (1994), 675-676.


Hussain R., Bittles A.H. The prevalence and demographic characteristics of consanguineous marriages in Pakistan (1998) Journal of Biosocial Science, 30 (2) , pp. 261-275.
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ICDDR,B. (2011). Health and Demographic Surveillance System—Matlab, vol. 43. Registration of health and demographic events 2009, Scientific Report 1174 Dhaka: ICDDR,B. Available at http://dspace.icddrb.org/dspace/bitstream/123456789/4296/1/ICDDRBScientificReport-114.pdf

Islam M.M. The practice of consanguineous marriage in Oman: Prevalence, trends and determinants (2012) Journal of Biosocial Science, 44 (5) , pp. 571-594


Khlat M. Consanguineous marriages in Beirut: time trends, spatial distribution.
(1988) Social biology, 35 (3-4) , pp. 324-3.


Lazo B., Campusano C., Figueroa H., Pinto-Cisternas J., Zambra E. Inbreeding and immigration in urban and rural zones of Chile, with an endogamy index
(1978) Social Biology, 25 (3) , pp. 228-234.

Mobarak, A.M, Kuhn, R, Peters, C. Consanguinity and Other Marriage Market Effects of a Wealth Shock in Bangladesh. (2013). Demography, 50 (5). Pp 1845-1871.

Mutharayappa R. Socio-cultural factors and marriage among Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka. (1993) Man in India, 73 (1) , pp. 17-27.


Shenk, Mary K., Kathrine E. Starkweather, Howard C. Kress, and Nurul Alam. 2013. Does absence matter? A comparison of three types of father absence in rural Bangladesh. Human Nature 24(1):76-110

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Whitehead, John. An Introduction to Logistic Regression. Department of Economics. Appalachian State University. 1999. http://www.appstate.edu/~whiteheadjc/service/logit/intro.htm
References cont.
Respondent's father's occupation
Husband's father's occupation
Husband's occupation
Respondent's employment
Respondent's mother's employment
Husband's mother's employment
Husband's number of brothers living
Husband's number of sister's living
Number of respondent's brothers
Number of respondent's sisters
Respondent's number of siblings
Full transcript