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Saturn's Rings

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Saurav Singbal

on 8 November 2011

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Transcript of Saturn's Rings

Saturn's Rings frefefe Saturn has shiny rings Saturn has shiny rings Facts about Saturn
Sixth planet in the solar system after Jupiter
Second largest planet in the solar system Done by: Saurav Singbal Facts about Saturn
Sixth planet in the solar system after Jupiter.
Second largest planet in the solar system.
Has 60 moons orbitting around it, Table of Contents
Interesting facts about Saturn
What are Saturn's rings made of?
Who was the first person to discover them?
How far away are Saturn's rings from Saturn?
Why do the rings orbit around Saturn?
Can these rings crash into Saturn or any other planet? Done by: Saurav Singbal Table of Contents
Facts about Saturn
Other Interesting facts
What are Saturn's rings like?
The main rings (A, B and C ring)
The dusty rings (D and E ring)
The dusty rings (F and G ring)
The Phoebe ring
History of the rings
How were Saturn's rings formed?
Why do the rings stay in orbit around Saturn?
How far away are Saturn's rings from Saturn?
Conclusion
Bibliography Facts about Saturn
Sixth planet in the solar sytem after Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and Jupiter
Second largest planet in the solar system after Jupiter Facts about Saturn
Sixth planet in the solar system after Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and Jupiter.
Second largest planet in the solar system after Jupiter.
Has 62 moons orbitting around it, 9 of which are provisional.
Has a surface area of 42700000000 square kilometres, 9.41 times more than that of the Earth
Has a mass of 5.6851x10 to the power of 26 kilograms, making it a little heavier than Earth.
Has a gravitational acceleration of 10.44 metres per second squared, 1.06 times more than the gravitational pull of the Earth. Other interesting facts
Saturn is the least dense planet in our solar system which is even lighter than water.
Saturn consists mainly of hydrogen and helium- the two lightest gases.
Saturn has many rings orbitting around it.
Saturn spins very quickly around its axis, so the planet flattens itself.
So far, Saturn has only been visited by four spacecrafts- Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, Voyager 2 and Cassini.
Saturn takes only 10 hours, 32 minutes and 35 seconds on average to rotate around its axis.
Saturn is one of the planets which can be seen from the Earth at night without a telescope.
Enceladus- one of Saturn's moons has ice geysers blasting out of its Southern Pole, which suggests that the moon is warm enough for the existence of life. What are Saturn's rings like?
Saturn's rings are just ice chunks of various sizes surrounded by Saturn's moons.
There are over 30 different kinds of rings orbitting around Saturn
These rings are categorized according to their size and composition.
The rings have been named in the order of their discovery.
The main rings are the A,B and C ring and the dusty rings are the D,E, F and G ring
These rings could have formed 4.6 billion years ago- the same time when Earth, Saturn and other planets were formed
The rings have a thickness of no more than 200 metres.

http://www.solarviews.com/eng/saturnrings.htm Photo of Enceladus taken by Satellite Ice geysers on Enceladus Bibliography
Baxamusa, Batul Nafisa. "How Many Rings Does Saturn Have." Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/how-many-rings-does-saturn-have.html/
"The Real Lord of the Rings." NASA Science. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2002/12feb_rings/>.
"Interesting Facts About Saturn." Universe Today. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.universetoday.com/15418/interesting-facts-about-saturn/>.
"APOD: 2007 October 13 - Enceladus Ice Geysers." Astronomy Picture of the Day. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap071013.html>.
"Saturn - Enioangelo.com." Welcome to ENIOANGELO.COM...a Web Site by Enio Angelo. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.enioangelo.com/SolarSystem/Saturn.htm>.
"NASA - A Look at Enceladus' Plume." NASA - Home. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cassini/multimedia/cassini20080207.html>.
"Science Photo Library: Stock Science and Specialist Images and Footage." Stock Science and Specialist Images and Footage. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_lo_res.html?id=823960112>.
"The Phoebe Ring Around Saturn." Windows to the Universe. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.windows2universe.org/saturn/saturn_phoebe_ring.html>.
"Saturn Gets a New Ring. Meet the Phoebe Ring." Web. 3 Apr. 2011. <http://www.giantbomb.com/forums/off-topic/31/saturn-gets-a-new-ring-meet-the-phoebe-ring/265489/>.
"Cassini Spacecraft Back in Operation." Universe Today. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.universetoday.com/79929/cassini-spacecraft-back-in-operation/>.
"Saturn's Magnificent Rings." Views of the Solar System. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.solarviews.com/eng/saturnrings.htm>. The main rings (A, B and C ring)
A ring
Outermost ring with a thickness of 10 to 30 metres.
Its inner boundary is the Cassini division and the outer boundary is close to Atlas- one of Saturn's smaller moons.
Has an optical depth of 0.4-0.5 and a mass of 6.2x10 to the power of 24 grams
B ring
The largest, brightest and most massive of all the rings.
Thickness of 5 to 15 metres and a mass of 2.8x10 to the power of 25 grams.
Has an optical depth of 0.8-2.5.
C ring
Located inward of the B ring
Composed of darker materials than the A and B rings.
Vertical thickness of 5 metres and a mass of 1.1x10 to the power of 24 grams.
Has an optical depth of 0.05-0.35. The dusty rings (D and E ring)
D ring
Innermost ring extending inward to Saturn's cloud tops.
Has an optical depth of 0.01.
Three ringlets present within the ring- D73, D72 and D68, with D68 the largest of all.
E ring
Outermost ring which is extremely wide.
Has an optical depth of 10 raised to the power of -5.
Begins at the orbit of Mimas (Saturn's moon) and ends somewhere around the orbit of Rhea.
Consists mainly of ice, with silicates, carbon dioxide and ammonia.
Composed of microscopic particles. The Phoebe ring
One of the large rings around planet Saturn.
6 million kilometres- about 100 times larger than Saturn's main ring system.
40 times thicker than the diameter of Saturn.
Made up of tiny pieces of ice and dust, which came from the meteorite impacts on Moon Phoebe.
Is tilted 27 degrees from Saturn's equatorial plane and the other rings.
Phoebe- one of Saturn's moons orbits within this ring.
Cannot be seen in visible light or even with a powerful telescope.
Was discovered using NASA's Infra-red Spitzer Space Telescope.
A part of the ring crosses the orbit of another moon of Saturn- Lapetus. The dusty rings (F and G rings)
F ring
Outermost discrete ring and the most active ring in the solar system.
Has an optical depth of 0.01 to 1.
Held together by two shepherd moons, Prometheus and Pandora.
Consists of one core ring and a spiral stand around it.
G ring
Very thin and faint about halfway between the F ring and the beginning of the E ring.
Has an optical depth of 10 raised to the power of -6 and a mass of 10 raised to the power of 20 grams.
Contains an arc near its inner edge composed of icy particles.
Consists of dust released from within the arc. Phoebe ring under Spitzer Space Telescope History of the rings
Galileo Galilei was the first to discover Saturn's rings in 1610.
Galileo could see the rings through his Hubble Space Telescope, but he thought that they were just moons orbiting around Saturn.
Later in 1655, Christiaan Huygens identified the moons as a solid ring.
In the mid 1800's, it was discovered that the rings were made up of many small particles, instead of one large solid piece.
In 1979, Pioneer 11 became the first spacecraft to fly past Saturn and take pictures of its rings, but the pictures were of low resolution.
In 1980 and 1981, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 took high resolution pictures of Saturn and its rings.
In 2004, Cassini arrived in Saturn and became the first spacecraft to go into orbit around Saturn. Cassini orbiting around Saturn Pioneer 11 taking photos of Saturn Centrifugal force Force of gravity Why do the rings stay in orbit around Saturn?
There is a force of gravity between any two objects and the gravitational force is larger if the two masses are larger and are close together.
Just like there is a gravitational attraction between the Earth and the moon, there is also a gravitational attraction between Saturn's rings and Saturn.
The centrifugal force (the forward momentum) of the rings is equal to the gravitational attraction between the rings and Saturn, so the rings orbit around in a curve, that matches the curve of Saturn.
The rings are the correct distance away from Saturn, not too far, not too close.
If the rings were a little closer to Saturn, then the gravitational force would be greater and the rings would crash straight back into Saturn.
If the rings were a little further, the gravitational force would be smaller and the rings would move away from Saturn eventually. Gravitational force Centrifugal force How far away are Saturn's Rings from the centre of Saturn?
Many people think that Saturn's rings are very close to the planet. In fact, in pictures, the rings appear to be very close to Saturn but that is not true.
The ring closest to Saturn is itself 6700 km away and the ring furthest is about 480000 km away from the centre of Saturn.
A ring: 122,200-136,800 km
B ring: 92,000-117,500 km
C ring: 74,500-92,000 km
D ring: 66,000-73,150 km (innermost)
E ring: 180,000-480,000 km (outermost)
F ring: 140,210 km
G ring: 164,000-172,000 km How were Saturn's rings formed?
There are three possible scenarios that could have lead to the formation of Saturn's rings.
1st possibility: The rings were made up of left over matter from the early solar system. This left over matter was orbitting within the Roche limit, the closest a smaller body can get to a larger body without getting torn apart. When the matter went inside the Roche limit, it was torn apart by Saturn's large gravitational attraction and this created rings of scattered material around Saturn.
2nd possibility: One of Saturn's moons was pulled inside the Roche limit and the huge gravitational attraction of Saturn caused the moon to break apart, forming the rings.
3rd possibility: The rings were once a body that orbitted around Saturn, but was broken due to meteorite impacts. This broken satellite was then pulled into the Roche limit and was unable to change back to its original shape. Conclusion
Therefore, Saturn is a very interesting planet in our solar system. It is the least dense planet (lighter than water), second largest with a large gravitational force. It has moons where ice geysers occur and has rings which were formed 4.6 billion years ago. However, there are yet many things we do not know about Saturn. We are still not certain when and how the rings were formed, different scientists have different theories. We are also not sure whether Enceladus can really support life. Scientists say that the moon is warm enough for humans to survive, but they are still not sure whether the moon has an atmosphere, lithosphere, water and other necessities for life to exist. So, although we have made a lot of progress, we still have a lot to find out about Saturn and the solar system. Hope you enjoyed the presentation THE END!
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