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DNA

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by

Devin Weiss

on 12 February 2014

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Transcript of DNA

DNA can be replicated
DNA is made of two strands of polynucleotides twisted in
double helix
THE BIG PICTURE: DNA & RNA
DNA
RNA
PROTEIN
Replication
Transcription
Translation
purpose:
produce 2 identical DNA's
each DNA strand distributed to 2 new cells
2 polynucleotides arranged like a ladder:
sides are S-P (antiparallel)
rungs are bases
A with T
G with C
H bonds connect
DNA: Structure
Backbone:
Deoxyribose
and
Phosphate

group.
These two strands are held together through
Hydrogen Bonds
These "rungs" of the ladder are the
Nitrogen bases
What is the backbone made up of?
Give me an example of a Base.
A base (A,T,G,C) + one sugar & one Phosphate = a nucleotide
DNA, Genes, Chromosomes
What make up chromosomes?
A chromosome is ONE gigantic
DNA molecule all wrapped around proteins (Histones)
A gene is a segment of DNA that codes for an amino acid used to make a
protein
Replication occurs during
Interphase
of the cell cycle
Replication: Sequence of events
DNA Unzips
Hydrogen bonds break down and
separate
exposing the now unpaired bases.
Free
Nucleotides
form new hydrogen bonds
Backbone reforms
(phosphate
bonds to another nucleotied's sugar
Simple
Detailed
Half
new
half
old
=
semiconservitive
Transcription
The making of
RNA
from DNA.

All
RNA
is transcribed from DNA
This takes place in the
Nucleus
of the cell (DNA is too big to leave nucleus)
(RNA is a partial copy of DNA)
RNA
mRNA: (messanger): copy of a
single gene
mRNA is small enough to leave the
nucleus
and travel to the
ribosomes
to be
translated
.
Each triplet of bases in mRNA is called a
codon
tRNA (transfer)-taxi
cloverleaf-shaped molecule with
amino acid
attached to one end
anti-codon
There are
20
different amino acids
There needs to be only
20
different tRNA anti-codons, but there are nearly
50
Each type of tRNA has a different anti-codon and carries a different
amino acid
rRNA
There is one other type of RNA it is:
This is what builds-into
the simple steps for ribosomes
Translation
Each RNA type is used to create proteins, this is called
protein synthesis
Protein synthesis consists of
transcription
in the nucleus and
translation
in the cytoplasm.
In RNA the nucleotide: Thymine, is replaced with a new nucleotide called Uracil
Differences of DNA From RNA are:
single strand
Ribose
No thymine-it is uricile
Give another word for Transcription & Translation:
A chromosome consists of many many genes
Full transcript