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Communicative Language Teaching
Transcript of Communicative Language Teaching
The PPP Approach to Communicative Language
Communicative Language Teaching
Communicative language teaching began in Britain in the 1960s as a replacement to the earlier structural method, called Situational Language Teaching. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach to the teaching second and foreign language that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language.
An emphasis on learning to communicate through
in the target language:
-students interact with one another (in pairs, groups, whole group) and express their individuality by sharing ideas, opinions
The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation:
-exposure to authentic passages, recordings, gapfills, and practice exercises
The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on the language but also on the learning process itself:
-personal commitment, positive attitude, willingness to make efforts provide "confidence building".
An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning:
-group work discussing different aspects of their lives, therefore, they carry out real cmmunication through meaningful tasks.
An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom:
-classroom goals are focused on all components of communicative competence which help and allow the learner to practise the language interdependence.
Meaning is paramount.
Attempt to communicate may be encouraged from the very beginning.
Dialogs, if used, center around communicative functions and are not normally memorized.
An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom.
Contextualization is a basic premise.
Reading and writing can start from the first day, if desired.
Intrinsic motivation will spring from an interest in what is being communicated by the language.
The target linguistic system will be learned best through the process of struggling to communicate.
Effective communication is sought.
Drilling may occur, but peripherally.
Sequencing is determined by any consideration of content function, or meaning which mantains interest.
Comprehensible pronunciation is sought.
Teachers help learners in any way that motivates them to work with the language.
Any advice which helps the learners is accepted – varying according to their age .
Language is created by the individual often through trial and error.
It represents the introduction to a lesson, and necessarily requires the creation of a realistic (or realistic-feeling) "situation" requiring the target language.
The teacher checks to see that the students understand the nature of the situation, then builds the "concept" underlying the language to be learned using small chunks of language that the students already know.
Having understood the concept, students are then given the language "model" and engage in choral drills to learn statement, answer and question forms for the target language.
It's a very teacher-oriented stage where error correction is important.
It usually begins with what is termed "mechanical practice" - open and closed pairwork.
Students gradually move into more "communicative practice" involving procedures like information gap activities, dialogue creation and controlled roleplays.
Practice is seen as the frequency device to create familiarity and confidence with the new language, and a measuring stick for accuracy.
The teacher still directs and corrects at this stage, but the classroom is beginning to become more learner-centered.
It is seen as the culmination of the language learning process, whereby the learners have started to become independent users of the language rather than students of the language.
The teacher's role here is to facilitate a realistic situation or activity where the students instinctively feel the need to actively apply the language they have been practicing.
The teacher does not correct or become involved unless students directly appeal to him/her to do so.
It's difficult for non-native teachers to to be able to respond to a multitude of language problems which may arise.
They students do not like uncontrolled practice.
Large classes do not allow teachers to keep control.
Mix-level groups (Intermediate or advanced stds. lose interest, lower stds. feel they are unable to participate in a conversation.
Teachers orginize all the activities in the class and as a result means greater demands of work.
It is not possible to find materials which would interest everyone.
It is not suitable for more reserved students.
Students cannot continue working at home.
-Interaction between students and teachers.
-Basic knowledge and ability to skillfully combine the development.
-Student's interest is enhanced.
-Students become aware of their abilities and can exhibit them.
-CLT can be adapted at any level.
-CLT allows learners to use the target language in a meaningful context.
Mix-level groups make hard to use this approach as everything (including the instructions) must be done in English.
The lack of hours of English classes during the week.
Students' surrounding is L1 (they don't see the point)
Students (specially secondary students) are not proactive, they prefer the teacher gives them everything done.
Crowded classes makes monitoring quite difficult.
Students feel they are not progressing in the course.
For teachers, it is time consuming.
It demands much more energy and adaptability from teachers.
It requires constant teachers updating
To apply the principles, CLT passed through 3 main dimensions:
1.-Need to develop a compatible syllabus to acchieve communicative competence.
2.-Procedures for identifying learners' needs ("needs analysis").
3.-Kinds of classrooms activities (basis of communicative methodology)