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The renaissance period
Transcript of The renaissance period
The Renaissance came right after the 100 years war during the Medieval Period
- the "rebirth" of the arts, paintings, sculptures and music, during the Classical Period, referring to the influence of Greece and Rome, with further improvements.
- European countries started their journey for the 3G's (Gold, God & Glory) which is their greatest inspiration
- beginning of the modern Europe History
- First started in Italy (1300) and lasted for two centuries
- Spread to Northern Europe around 145
- In England, Renaissance did not begin until the 16th century and lasted until the early 17th century.
According to Jacob Burckhardt, a 19th-century historian, Renaissance period is in distinct contrast to the Middle Ages.
Renaissance culture applied solely to the upper classes.
- People in the upper class had the luxury of time to spend learning the classics.
- Peasants were illiterate and Renaissance ideas had little impact on common people.
- Merchants and working classes were preoccupied with the concerns of daily life.
Cities of Northern Italy like Genoa, Venice, and Milan developed international trade
- In 1300, oligarchies controlled most of the parts of Italy.
- Commenda is a contract they used in which goods are delivered to another for a particular enterprise.
- Because of these trades, Italy became more urban. During that time, Italy had more towns and cities with substantial populations than any other countries in Europe.
Politics among the city-states in Italy
Italy did not unify politically because of competition.
• For that, balance-of-power pattern took effect wherein weaker states would join other states to prevent a single state from dominating the peninsula.
• Political disunity of the city-states of Italy led to their downfall.
• Condottiere is a leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states.
Major city-states and figures
1. Republic of Florence
2. Duchy of Milan
3. The Papal States (Rome)
4. Venetian Republic (Venice)
The Republic of Florence
• This is the center of Renaissance during 14th and 15th century.
• Controlled by the Medici Family
• Cosimo de’ Medici – became the unofficial ruler of the republic because he joined the other powerful families of Florence.
- He is the most powerful among the Medici rulers.
• Lorenzo de’ Medici – the “Magnificent” – significant patron of the arts
Duchy of Milan
• Was ruled by the Sforza family.
• Milan was a major enemy of Venice and Florence.
• Peace of Lodi – a response to concerns over the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople. It also created a stable balance of power for a time.
The Papal States (Rome)
- the popes served both as religious and political leaders
- Popes controlled most parts of Italy.
Venetian Republic (Venice)
• Last the longest among the Italian states.
• Greatest maritime power in Italy during 14th and 15th centuries.
• During that time, it is one of the world’s trading powers and great naval.
• The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
• Southern Italian region of Naples and the island of Sicily
• This is the only city-state of Italy that has an official “king.”
• France controlled the kingdom from 1266 – 1435, then controlled by Spain afterwards.
The Decline of the Italian City-States
1. “First Italian War” – French invasions
• Ludovico “the Moor” – the one who holds absolute power in Milan, and he encouraged Charles VIII, a French king, to invade Naples, the traditional enemy of Milan.
• The beginning of foreign invasions throughout the Italian Peninsula.
• Led to the overthrow of the Medici Family because Florence attempted to appease France during its invasion. By that time, Florence weakened.
• Girolamo Savonarola – he became the leader of Florence between 1494 and 1498, unofficially.
- He pledged to free Florence of its corruption and decadence, and because of that, theocracy in Florence was implemented.
* Theocracy is a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god.
- He predicted that paganism and moral decay in the city-states of Italy were the reasons for the French invasions.
- He also became a puppet of French.
- He was imprisoned and then burned at stake when France was removed from Italy
The Decline of the Italian City-States
3. In a series wars between Spain and France because of power struggles, Italy became a battleground of the two countries.
- Spain allied with Venice, the Papal States, and the Holy Roman Empire because of their fears of French-Italian alliance.
4. Niccolò Machiavelli
- author of "The Prince"
- 16th century’s quintessential treatise
* treatise – a written work dealing formally and systematically with a subject
- He observed the political leadership of the son of Pope Alexander VI, Cesare Borgia, who had plans of putting Italy under his control.
- “The ends justifies the means”
- “It was better to be feared than to be loved.”
- In addition to being aggressive and ruthless (like a lion), rulers also have to be practical and cunning (like a fox).
- He continued to influence European rulers over the centuries.
5. In 1527, Sack of Rome happened, which symbolized the end of the Renaissance in Italy. This was led by the armies of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V who was also king of Spain by that time.
According to dictionary.com humanism is
1. any system or mode of thought or action in which human interests, values, and dignity predominate.
2. devotion to or study of the humanities.
3. (sometimes initial capital letter) the studies, principles, or culture of the humanists.
4. Philosophy. a variety of ethical theory and practice that emphasizes reason, scientific inquiry, and human
• Greece and Rome’s antiquity in philosophy, literature, and art was revived
- It aimed to reconcile pagan writing with Christian thought.
• They had strong belief in the great potential of human beings and individualism.
- Developed the idea of Virtú, which is “the quality of being a man.”
- They had the idea of excelling in all of one’s pursuits
- They believed that Reason and Nature was the key to a good life.
• Studying ancient languages
- Latin was the main focus.
- Also studied Greek thoroughly after the fall of the Byzantine Empire.
- After years, all of the important ancient Roman and Greek texts had been rediscovered, translated, and printed.
• Rejected all Aristotelian views and scholasticism
- They were in favor of Cicero, Livy, Virgil, and Quintilian – Roman authors
- They were in favor of Plato because of his Greek writings
- They were in favor of the early Christian writers, specifically the New Testament
• Strongly believed in a liberal arts educational program – grammar, history, moral philosophy, poetry, politics, and rhetoric.
• Civic humanism is an idea that education should prepare leaders who would be active in civic affairs.
- Colliccion Salutati and Leonardo Bruni were two of the most important humanists, and who were also important political leaders.
• Humanism was more secular and lay dominated, and most humanists remained Christian.
icons of the
- He is considered the first modern writer.
- Literature was no longer subordinate to religion.
- He claimed that that the Middle Ages were the Dark Ages
- He was also the first to use critical text to analyze ancient texts.
- Influenced by Cicero.
- He wrote in the Italian vernacular his famous poetry
- He compiled Greek and Roman mythologies in an encyclopedia.
- Decameron – his most famous work. It consisted of 100 earthly tales that involved a social commentary of Italy during the 14th century. Its goal is to inform about wisdom of human character and behavior.
- He was the first one to use the term “humanism”
- He is one of the most important of the civic humanists.
- He also served as a chancellor in Florence.
- He wrote the first modern history, the history of Florence.
- He used primary source documents in writing a narrative.
- He is expert on the Latin language (Elegance of the Latin Language)
- On the False Donation of Constantine – using textual criticism, he exposed the Donation of Constantine as a fraud during the 8th century.
- He also pointed out different errors in the Latin Vulgate
*Latin Vulgate – an authorized version of the Bible for the Catholic Church
- He remained a devoted Catholic and served as a secretary under Pope Nicholas V even though his works questioned the Church authority.
- During the 15th century, he was one of the most influential humanist philosophers.
- At the behest of Cosimo de’ Medici, he founded the Platonic Academy. This served to spread the works and philosophy of Plato throughout Eurape.
- He translated Plato’s works into Latin so that Europeans could understand these works.
Pico della Mirandola
- He is a member of the Platonic Academy.
- Oration on the Dignity of Man – the most famous Renaissance work on the nature of humankind. It was said that humans were created by God and given potential for greatness. Yet, humans could choose a negative course. And humans had free will to be great or fail.
- author of "The Prince"
- His views were secular and his emphasis on individualism reflected humanist philosophy.
- In order to get a more realistic view of politics, he carefully studied classical history.
- The Book of the Courtier is the most important work on Renaissance social etiquette.
- Physical and Intellectual activities are required to become a true gentleman.
- “Renaissance Man” – he described it as a well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, an accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It contrasted the view of medieval of being a master in only one area
- Virtú – is the quality of being a great man in whatever noble pursuit
- Printing press – one of the most important inventions in human history.
- He developed movable type, which made the spread of humanistic literature throughout Europe possible.
- Published the first printed Bible in the city of Mainz in Germany.
- He facilitated the spread of Reformation.
The Renaissance, the rebirth of Art and Science, represents the pinnacle of artistic achievement, revived and confidently executed after a thousand years in the wilderness. The need to recapture the glories of antiquity was initially fuelled by scholars from various social backgrounds, in Italy, the perception was that the power and glory of ancient Rome (broken by invading Northern tribes) could be reborn. This was a major driving force for the beginnings of the renaissance.
Italian Renaissance Art
- Giorgio Vasari – A Historian of Contemporary Renaissance. He left significant information about Renaissance artists and their works
- Wealthy merchant-families patronized the arts. (Medicis)
- The magnificent artistic output of the Renaissance reflected the wealth of Florence.
- Local churches also patronize the Renaissance art as a means of glorifying God. Some outstanding examples are Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral by Brunelleschi Il Duomo; the two sets of doors by Ghiberti’s; and David by Michaelangelo, which was commissioned for the cathedral.
• Rome became the center of
• Florence was the leader in Renaissance art.
• Rome became the center of Renaissance Art
- In the late 15th century, Florence declined and Renaissance dominance moved to Rome.
- Pope Alexander VI – the most notorious of the Renaissance popes. He spent large amount on art patronage.
- Some of the outstanding works commissioned by the Church are Michaelangelo’s works – paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, St. Peter’s Cathedral’s dome atop, and Pieta, a sculpture located within the cathedral; The School of Athens by Raphael; and Tempietto, a small church that is a masterpiece in classical architecture, and the floor plan for St. Peter’s Cathedral rebuilt by Bramante
New Artistic Techniques
- 3D effects on a 2-dimensional surface’ perspective
- Chiaroscuro - used in visual arts to represent light and shadow as they define three-dimensional objects
- The subjects in the faces of the paintings expressed unique individual characterisics. It represents the Renaissance ideal of “individualism.”
- Emotion was shown on the faces of the subjects in the paintings.
- Sfumato – a technique used to blur and soften sharp outlines of the painting. Leonardo da Vinci developed this technique.
New artistic techniques
- Greek and Roman influenced Renaissance sculpture.
- Sculptures were often freestanding, so that it will be seen in the round.
- Like works in ancient Greece and Rome, most of the sculptures were glorified the human body, and many sculptures portrayed nude figures.
- Like their paintings, sculptures also glorified the individual.
new artistic technique
- Pointed arches, spires, flying buttresses, grand scale.
- Renaissance architecture used ancient Greek and Roman forms such as Greek temple architectures.
- Their architecture emphasized simplicity symmetry, and balance
Florentine Renaissance Artists
• Giotto – the first painter of Renaissance period. He used chiaroscuro.
• Filippo Brunelleschi – father of perspective
- Il Duomo – largest dome in Europe
• Leon Battista Alberti – he is the architect of some famous cathedrals.
• Lorenzo Ghiberti – sculptor; he joined a contest and won against Brunelleschi. He has two sets of bronze doors and Michaelangelo called his 2nd set of bronze doors the “gates of paradise”
• Donatello – sculptor; David was his first bronze statue. He was the first Renaissance artist to use a nude figure in sculpture.
• Massacio – painter;
- Birth of Venus – the subject is Venus, the Roman goddess of love. The painting is a good example of humanism.
- Centered in Rome
- Classical, balance, harmony, restraint
• Alexander VI, Julius II and Leo X – Renaissance popes who patronized the arts
• Bramante – architect; One of his works is the Tempietto which marked the beginning if High Renaissance in Rome because Alexander VI assigned him to build a sanctuary.
- He was also the principal architect of St. Peter’s cathedral’s rebuilt, but some of his plans for the cathedral were changed after his death.
• Leonardo da Vinci – “Renaissance Man”
- painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, scientist
- Mona Lisa – one of the great masterpieces in the history of art; sfumato.
- Last Supper – fresco
• Raphael Santi – painter
- “Madonna and Child” paintings
- School of Athens – quintessential example of humanism
• Michaelangelo Buonarroti
- Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel – painting
- David – humanistic sculpture made of marble
- Pietà – Mary holds the limp body of Christ
- He designed the dome atop of St. Peter’s Cathedral Vatican.
The venetian school
• Titian – greatest painter of the Venetian school because of his use of vivid color and movement, in contrast to more subtle colors and static figures of the Florentine style.
- Even though High Renaissance had taken art to perfection, mannerists are against the Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, simplicity, and realistic use of color
- Works often used unnatural colors while shapes were elongated or otherwise exaggerated
• El Greco
- Greek artist
- The greatest of the Mannerists
- His two important works were Burial of Count Orgaz and Toledo
The Northern Renaissance
The Northern Renaissance was the Renaissance that occurred in the European countries north of the Alps. Before 1497 Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century the ideas spread around Europe. This influenced the German Renaissance, French Renaissance, English Renaissance, Renaissance in the Low Countries, Polish Renaissance and other national and localized movements, each with different characteristics and strengths.
- Emphasized the writings of early Church that provided answers on how to have a better society and reform the Church
- Drew on Hebrew and Greek texts of the Bible and the writings of the church fathers.
- Focused on education and power of human intellect in order to bring institutional change and moral improvement.
- The church was reformed even though writings were criticized.
icons of the
- The first humanist to earn living by writing
- Most famous among all the northern humanists
- Master of Greek language
- Made translations of the New Testament’s Greek and Latin versions in order to have ‘pure’ editions
- In Prais of Folly – best-seller; sought reform to the church; against immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders; influenced Martin Luther
- Civic humanist’s prime example
- Utopia – his humanistic masterpiece; mixed civic humanism with religious ideals; viewed that the reason for the ill of the society is the accumulation of property; people have to be willing to sacrifice their individual rights for the common good in order to have harmony and order; talks about 16th century’s poverty, war, religious intolerance and other problems.
Jacques Lefevre d’Etables
- Leader of the French humanist
- 5 versions of the Psalms of the Bible
- A devout Catholic
Francesco Ximenes de Csineros
- Spanish humanist
- Transformed Spanish church and clergy
- Complutensian Polyglot Bible – placed Greek, Hebrew, and Latin versions of the Bible in parallel columns
- Portrayed his confidence in human nature as seen in his writings
- Gargantua and Pantagruel – Comic masterpieces and folk epics, which satirized the society of French; criticized monastic orders and clerical education
Michel de Montaigne
- The one who developed the essay form (for testing new ideas)
- Skepticism – doubt that true knowledge could be obtained, therefore one must be tolerant of others’ views
- Greatest author of the English Renaissance
- Comedies, tragedies, sonnets, and histories
Miguel de Cervantes
- Don Quixote – one of the greatest pieces in the literature of Spain; religious idealism and chivalric romance
dela cruz, chloe danielle
malibiran, john kirby
Rosario, jevi angela
salvador, kharina mar
Arts of the
Influenced by the Italian Renaissance
Has more details on the paintings, especially the background
Use of oil paints
More on emotions than the Italian Renaissance
Works are preoccupied with death
Jan Van Eyck
Peter Brueghel the Elder
- Most famous Flemish painter during the 15th century
- He perfected oil painting
- Used religious symbolism on wood panel paintings
- Has incredible detail in his works
- Ghent Altarpiece – his masterpiece
- Arnolfini and his Wife – his most famous work
- Master of fantasy and symbolism
- His art looks surrealistic
- His works focused on death and the torments of Hell
- Death and the Miser – shows the dance of death theme of the Black Plague era.
- Focused on lives of ordinary people
- He wasn’t influenced by the Italian Renaissance
- Patronized the art of Northern Renaissance
- They’re fortunate because of international banking
Hans Holbein the Younger
- Premier portrait artist of his era
- The Ambassadors – exploration, religious discord, preoccupation with death, and the rising tide of international relations in an age of expansion
- Artist of the northern Renaissance
- Woodcut master
- He was the first northern artist to master proportion, perspective, and modeling techniques
- Adam and Eve; Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles – his notable works
- Self-portraits paintings
Women in the
- Querelles des Femmes (“The Problem of Women”) – a debate that is all about the proper role of women in society; lasted for 600 years.
- Women have higher access to education
- Functioned as “ornaments” to their husbands
- Castiglione – women have to make themselves pleasing to man; only to upper classes.
- Sexual double-standard – women remain pure until marriage
Christine de Pisan
- The City of Ladies and The Book of Three Virtues
- Europe’s first feminist
- Well-educated in France
- Renaissance’s “First Lady”
- An example for women to forget the tradition of being ornaments to their husbands
- Became the ruler of Mantua after her husband died
- Patron of the arts
- Founded a school for young women
- Wrote around 2000 letters – politics and courtly life
- A baroque painter
- First female artist to get recognition in the post-Renaissance era.
- The first woman to paint religious and historical scenes
Peasant and Lower-class Women
- Status did not change much compared to wealthy women
1. European Family Pattern
o Nuclear family – poor people cannot support their extended families
o Wealthier people have extended families
2. Based not on love, but on economic considerations
o When property was involved, parents played a big role
o Dowries – important in wealthy families
o Women play a more important role in economy
3. Increased abandonment and infanticide among the poor
o Increased of foundling hospitals
o Illegitimate births have low rate
- Divorce is available in some areas
- Rape is not considered a serious crime
- More prostitution
- She said that during the Italian Renaissance, women suffered a marked decline in their status together with the noble women
- Sexual chastity was essential to all women
- While men monopolized economic and political issues in the public sphere, women were exclusively downgraded in the private sphere.
Unified Spain together with
her husband, Ferdinand.
a great ruler of England
Catherine de Medici
a great ruler of France
Ruler of Milan
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