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The History of Glass
Transcript of The History of Glass
Stained Glass Windows
A device which produces images of distant objects superior to that seen with the naked eye
The History of Glass
Step 4: Cooling and Cutting
naturally occurring glass like obsidian has been used since the Stone Ages to make sharp cutting tools
the first true glass was developed in Mesopotamia (Ancient Egypt)
Into the Middle Ages
First Vision Aid
20th Century Microscope Discoveries
History of Glass
Anglo-Saxons used glass for vessels, beads, and windows
first use in windows
used in stained-glass windows after the 10th century
large use of stained glass in the Gothic Revival of the 19th century
less prevalent during the Renaissance, due to its focus on architecture
led to the development of commercial windows
A new kind of instrument...
Previous inventions were
All used to quantify what was already observable
Telescope, however, was used to obtain new, previously inaccessible information
A great invention that lead to many discoveries, and also useful "derivatives"
Uses mirrors to direct light
Glass is transferred to water coolers to be cooled and later by large fans in an open area.
Glass is then cut by cutting wheels.
although glass is useful for many architectural and practical uses, it also holds value as an art form
developed in Murano, Italy
led the glass revolution in much of Europe
employed many cutting-edge techniques of the time
crystalline glass, millefiori, enameled glass, etc,
glass was one of the first materials available for jewelry making, behind wood, teeth, and stones
many beads can be made easily in a short amount of time
reflection makes them more attractive
many more bowls or cups could be made by a skilled glassworker in far less time than a stonemason or woodcarver with their respective tools
glass is very hygienic and easier to clean in comparison
invented at the establishment of the Roman empire in the 1st century BC
involves inflating a molten blob of glass using a hollow pipe
cups, vases, and bowls now hold artistic value
used in some Murano work
Circa 1000 AD
Frames made of
Lenses made of
Dutch father/son team experimented with multiple lenses
Forerunners in the creation of compound microscope and the telescope
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Built single lens microscope
First to describe bacteria
Allowed magnifications of 270 diameters
Microscopy increased in scientific popularity
The combination of two types of glass reduced chromatic effect
Visual distractions caused by light refraction
1931: Electron microscope
1932: Phase-contrast microscope
1981: Scanning tunneling microscope
Phenomenon of magnifying images discovered in Holland in 1608
Galileo first to use it for significant purposes
Published first observations in Sidereus Nuncius
The liquid moves into an adjacent chamber called the forming chamber through a canal.
Liquid glass then hardens over a bath of liquid tin.
Thickness/thinness is determined by stretch machines and heaters, which are located above the stretch machines.
Step 3: Bath
Step 1: Melting Process
Ingredients are combined in a melting furnace.
Preheated air and natural gas in the furnace produce flames, which increase the temperature.
Step 2: Fining Process
Bubbles created in the furnace rise to from the surface of the glass to the furnace’s atmosphere.
How Glass is Made Today
How Glass Was Made
Before a proper technique was developed people used obsidian, a naturally occurring volcanic glass.
Core Formed Vessels
Fusing and Slumping
History of Glass
However, this telescope suffers
from chromatic aberration...
Yet suffers from comatic aberration...
Reflect, instead of refract, light
Silvering - applying a reflective
coating to glass
Lauren Soriente - How Glass Was Made
Ashley Palmer - History of Glass
Kaitlyn Jones - Microscopes
Scott Brown - Telescopes
Works by spining a reflective liquid,
Glass played a significant role in scientific advancements throughout history, due to it being durable and moldable, and based on how it interacts with light.