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The History of Glass

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Kaitlyn Jones

on 25 March 2014

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Transcript of The History of Glass

Practical Uses
Stained Glass Windows
A device which produces images of distant objects superior to that seen with the naked eye
The History of Glass
Step 4: Cooling and Cutting
naturally occurring glass like obsidian has been used since the Stone Ages to make sharp cutting tools
the first true glass was developed in Mesopotamia (Ancient Egypt)
Into the Middle Ages
Murano Glass
First Vision Aid
Wearable Eyeglasses
20th Century Microscope Discoveries
Early History
History of Glass
Anglo-Saxons used glass for vessels, beads, and windows
first use in windows
used in stained-glass windows after the 10th century
large use of stained glass in the Gothic Revival of the 19th century
less prevalent during the Renaissance, due to its focus on architecture
led to the development of commercial windows
Artistic Uses
A new kind of instrument...
Previous inventions were

Astrolabe (927)

Compass (1117)

Quadrant (1460)

All used to quantify what was already observable

Telescope, however, was used to obtain new, previously inaccessible information
A great invention that lead to many discoveries, and also useful "derivatives"
Uses mirrors to direct light
Glass is transferred to water coolers to be cooled and later by large fans in an open area.
Glass is then cut by cutting wheels.
Insulated Glass
although glass is useful for many architectural and practical uses, it also holds value as an art form
Murano glass
developed in Murano, Italy
led the glass revolution in much of Europe
employed many cutting-edge techniques of the time
crystalline glass, millefiori, enameled glass, etc,
glass was one of the first materials available for jewelry making, behind wood, teeth, and stones
many beads can be made easily in a short amount of time
reflection makes them more attractive
Practical Uses
many more bowls or cups could be made by a skilled glassworker in far less time than a stonemason or woodcarver with their respective tools
glass is very hygienic and easier to clean in comparison
invented at the establishment of the Roman empire in the 1st century BC
involves inflating a molten blob of glass using a hollow pipe
cups, vases, and bowls now hold artistic value
used in some Murano work
Reading stone
Circa 1000 AD
Circa 1284
Frames made of
Lenses made of
Dutch father/son team experimented with multiple lenses
Forerunners in the creation of compound microscope and the telescope
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Built single lens microscope
First to describe bacteria
Allowed magnifications of 270 diameters
18th Century
Microscopy increased in scientific popularity
The combination of two types of glass reduced chromatic effect
Visual distractions caused by light refraction
1903: Ultramicroscope
1931: Electron microscope
1932: Phase-contrast microscope
1981: Scanning tunneling microscope

Phenomenon of magnifying images discovered in Holland in 1608

Galileo first to use it for significant purposes

Published first observations in Sidereus Nuncius
The liquid moves into an adjacent chamber called the forming chamber through a canal.
Liquid glass then hardens over a bath of liquid tin.
Thickness/thinness is determined by stretch machines and heaters, which are located above the stretch machines.
Step 3: Bath
Step 1: Melting Process
Ingredients are combined in a melting furnace.
Preheated air and natural gas in the furnace produce flames, which increase the temperature.
Step 2: Fining Process
Bubbles created in the furnace rise to from the surface of the glass to the furnace’s atmosphere.
How Glass is Made Today
How Glass Was Made
Before a proper technique was developed people used obsidian, a naturally occurring volcanic glass.
Core Formed Vessels
Fusing and Slumping
History of Glass
Chunk Casting
Refracting Telescope
However, this telescope suffers
from chromatic aberration...
Yet suffers from comatic aberration...
Reflect, instead of refract, light

Silvering - applying a reflective
coating to glass
Measured by:

Modern telescopes
Lauren Soriente - How Glass Was Made
Ashley Palmer - History of Glass
Kaitlyn Jones - Microscopes
Scott Brown - Telescopes

Mirror Telescope
Works by spining a reflective liquid,
usually mercury
Glass played a significant role in scientific advancements throughout history, due to it being durable and moldable, and based on how it interacts with light.
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