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Political and Economic Changes and Continuities of New Imperialism on South Asia

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Morgan Moore

on 18 March 2014

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Transcript of Political and Economic Changes and Continuities of New Imperialism on South Asia

Political and Economic Changes and Continuities of New Imperialism on South Asia
Thesis
From 1750 to 1900, New Imperialism impacted political perceptions in South Asia, prompting a nationalist movement in the 1880s; European imperialists of the 19th century exacted taxes and rents from their conquered peoples, sent botanists and agricultural experts to colonies to increase the production of commercial crops, European ideas of "progress" expanded the world economy, thanks to cheaper and faster transportation (canals, railroads, etc.), European ideas challenged the traditions of colonies, and increased European demand for products provoked increased production from territories.
Nevertheless, European/ imperial powers' hungry pursuit for gain and the utilization of modern technology to improve less industrial territories like in the South Asian region perpetuated.
Relevant Historical Context
The growing needs of the industrial world could not be met by the traditional methods of production and transportation of the nonindustrial world. To prevent the expansion of their industry from being stifled by the backwardness of their newly conquered territories, the imperialists made every effort to bring those territories into the mainstream of the world market.
Evidence: sent botanists and agricultural experts -> introduction of new crops
Where in the thesis is the following:
Continuity:
European/ imperial powers' hungry pursuit for gain and the utilization of modern technology to improve less industrial territories perpetuated
Global connection: expansion of the world economy
Reasons for change and continuity:
nationalist movement prompted by
European invasion/European ideas
exacted taxes and rents from imperial territories
for European benefit
sent botanists and agricultural experts to colonies
to increase the production of commercial crops
world economy expanded
thanks to European ideas of "progress" and improvement in transportation
traditions of imperial territories challenged
by European ideas
increased production
because of increased demand

European/ imperial powers' hungry pursuit for gain perpetuated
because imperial powers wanted more wealth for their country and wanted to further stimulate their economy.
The utilization of modern technology to improve less industrial territories perpetuated
in order to launch potentially profitable nonindustrial territories into the world economy.

Appropriate range: 1750-1900
Address: political perceptions
political perceptions: The impact of New Imperialism on South Asia prompted a nationalist movement in India; Indians argued that the only way to regain control of their destiny was to promoted Pan-India nationalism.
Address: exacted taxes and rents from imperial territories
Once European imperial powers conquered their desired imperial territory, like past conquerors, they exacted taxes and rents. This revenue was collected and spent accordingly: used to further stimulate Europe's economy, advance its technology, etc.
Address: sent botanists and agricultural experts
Europe's sending botanists and agricultural experts to South Asia and other imperial territories prompted the introduction of new crops.
Address: traditions challenged
Along with the New Imperialism imposed upon South Asia came many European reforms that challenged the traditions in that region.
Analyze one change and continuity
World economy expanded
As the world economy was beginning to grow more and more, imperial powers needed their nonindustrial territories to catch up. Imperial powers introduced modern technology specifically transportation to their imperial territories, specifically in South Asia, making them better, more productive sources of raw materials.
European/ imperial powers' hungry pursuit for gain and the utilization of modern technology to improve less industrial territories perpetuated
European/imperial powers were very enthusiastic and aggressive towards creating more imperial territories. The utilization and administering of technology to nonindustrial territories like in the South Asian region was a primary way they did that.
Morgan Moore
Century tea was transferred from China to India and Ceylon. British and Dutch botanists smuggled seeds of the cinchona tree from the Andes to India and Java and used it to create quinine an antimalarial drug. British agents stole seeds of rubber trees from the Amazon and transferred them to South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Evidence: expansion of the world economy primarily through transportation technology
The Suez and Panama canals cut travel time and lowered freight costs dramatically. The Europeans also build railroads throughout the world; India alone had 37,000 miles of track by 1915.
Evidence: increased demand provokes increased production
For centuries Europe had been a ready market for spices, sugar, silk, and other exotic and tropical products. The Industrial Revolution vastly expanded this demand. Imports of foods and stimulants such as tea, coffee, and cocoa increased substantially during the 19th century. The trade in industrial raw materials grew even faster.
Evidence: New Imperialism impacts political perceptions in South Asia
Movements and rebellions in British India against imperial power brought about the development of the Indian National Congress a movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government.
Evidence: traditions challenged
Railroads in South Asia mixed people of different castes, faiths, and sexes. The British banned certain practices they found repugnant such as sati (widow burning) and female infanticide. Also, prohibitions against widows remarrying were revoked.
Evidence:
exacted taxes and rents
European imperialists especially profited from valuable trading cities Calcutta, Bengal, Bombay, and Madras.
Analysis of Continuity and Change over Time
New Imperialism impacted the political and economic environment of South Asia. South Asian political/nationalist movements, the introduction of advanced technology like railroads and canals, and reforms imposed by imperialists on South Asia were all caused by New Imperialism. Europe's ravenous pursuit for gain and profit and its use of technology as the mechanism of catapulting nonindustrial territories into the world economy resulted in the economic success of Europe and the imperial territory.
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