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Atomic Model Project Timeline

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Linden Miller

on 11 September 2014

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Transcript of Atomic Model Project Timeline

1800s
1900s
2010
BC
2000s
Atomic Model Project Timeline
Democritus:
Example of his contribution:
John Dalton:
Eugen Goldstein: 1886
~Many believe he created the idea of the proton!
~Used cathode ray tubes to create anode rays; knocked off electrons and attracted them to a positive charge
~Conducted experiences that expanded the idea of the atom's structure
~His atom still resembled the plum pudding model
J.J. Thomson:
~Many major contributions involving the atom
~1904: created the plum pudding model where the electrons, or plums, were suspended upon the positively charged interior, or the pudding
~Matter is made up of tiny particles called corpuscles, today known as electrons
~ 1912: channeled neon through magnetic and electric field and measured the ratio to find that neon had two different atoms, creating an isotope
BONUS SCIENTISTS ARE PLACED ABOVE REGULAR SCIENTISTS, ALSO INCLUDED IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER
Earnest Rutherford:
~1909: Helped create the nuclear atom with his alpha scattering experiment
~Used the particles as nuclear bullets to smash the atoms; some deflected and others bounced back
~Came to the conclusion that the positive charge of the atom was contained in a very small part of the radius of the nucleus
Robert Millikan:
~1909; performed the Oil Drop Experiment in which an atomizer sprayed a mist of oil droplets (in a microscope) into the upper chamber and some of the droplets fell to the apparatus; Millikan let them fall until they reached terminal velocity and by use of formula, calculated the mass of each drop
Neils Bohr:
~1913; contributed with the idea that the atom was a
small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons
~Was the first to realize that electrons travel in separate orbits around the nucleus (planetary model) with a set radius- see below

~Philosopher in 460-370 BC
~Claimed everything was composed of atoms
~Believed they differed in size and shape
~Used his five senses to characterize the atom
~No experiments completed
~Used the solid sphere model

*Atoms were small and simple (solid sphere model).
At the beginning of 1808, Dalton created his atomic theory including:
-Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms
- All atoms of an element are identical
- Atoms of a element are different than those from any other
-Atoms of one element can combine with those of another to form a compound
- During a chemical reaction, atoms aren't created or destroyed, just grouped differently
The picture here shows
the two isotopes of neon.
Albert Einstein:
~1905: Einstein published 3 papers in a science journal and created his theory of relativity including his E=MC^2 formula which became the basis for atomic theory research
~Also recognized the presence of electrons in the photoelectric effect
Louis de Broglie:
~1924: discovered the wave nature of electrons and suggested that all matter have wave properties, because light seemed to have both wave and particle characteristics, the electron might also have both characteristics
~Put his take on the Bohr model
Werner Heisenberg:
~1925: published his theory of quantum mechanics at 23 years old
~He believed that mechanical quantities (such as velocity) should be written through matrices and began to form his theory through matrix equations
~Also created the Uncertainty Principle which said that electrons do not travel in organized orbits (contributed to the electron cloud model)
Erwin Schrodinger:
~1926: established the Schrodinger equation which displayed through mathematics that waves could be used to explain electrons in atoms
~Built off Bohr's model with the electron cloud model that depicted the floating motion of electrons

James Chadwick:
~1932: fundamental discovery of the
neutron
which are particles that are devoid of any electrical charge
~Used Beryllium to discover the neutrons

Wolfgang Pauli:
~1940: proved the relationship between spin and statistics
~1945:basis of the quantum theory

*Ludwig Boltzmann:
~1870s: Austrian physicist
~role in development of statistical mechanics and statistical explanation of the second law of thermodynamics
*Max Planck:
~1900- published a paper showing that energy emitted by a resonator could only take on particular values
~turning point in physics
*Hantaro Nagaoka
~1929: first person to describe meteor burst communications
*Max Born:
~1908: extensive study of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity
~1919:Physics professor at University of Frankfurt
*Richard Fenyman:
~1945: huge role in the development of atomic bomb, or the Manhattan Project
~Quantum mechanics
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