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Transcript of Cholera Summaries
Symptoms and Incubation Period
All in all, cholera is a very nasty disease to get. Just to get it requires having the fecal matter of an infected person coming in contact with your mouth. After that, you have approximately a 1 in 5 chance of showing the symptoms. If you are in that lucky minority, in a period of time ranging from a few hours to five days you could start having explosive diarrhea, producing 2-5 gallons of white feces daily! Some people are even fortunate enough to have severe vomiting along with the diarrhea. If these symptoms do not compel you to seek treatment within the first day, you will begin to notice your skin becoming a bluish gray color and your eyes appearing to be sunken into your skull. If these clues are not enough to make you want treatment almost immediately, you will begin to experience electrolyte imbalance, which results in DEATH! The moral of this story is..... DON'T GET CHOLERA! it will be no fun for you or the people you infect through your feces.
Areas of the World Effected
Tchaivosky the Russian composer died of cholera at 53.
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot was a French physicist who died of cholera at 36.
Charles X, a king of France, was killed by cholera at 79.
Karl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz was a war theorist who died of cholera in 1831.
James K. Polk was the 11th U.S. president and died of cholera at 53.
Treatments and Cures
Because the main reason people die of Cholera is dehydration from diarrhea, the main goal in the treatment of Cholera is to stop the diarrhea, and rehydrate the body.
Oral Rehydration Salts is a simple rehydration solution which helps to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
In some cases, oral rehydration may not be enough, so severely dehydrated people may also need intravenous fluids.
Although antibiotics are not a necessary part, some drugs, such as doxycycline and azithromycin, may help to decrease the amount of cholera-related diarrhea.
Zinc has been shown to decrease diarrhea in children with cholera.
With proper treatment, a case fatality rate should remain under 1%.
In untreated cases, the mortality rate averages about 50%, and goes as high as 90%.
There are 3-5 million cases and 100,000-120,000 deaths annually.
There was a recent outbreak of Cholera in Haiti, in which 2.3% of those infected died.
There have been many epidemics of Cholera. The first outbreak came from
India in the Ganges river basin. In October 2010, a major cholera epidemic started in Haiti, affecting also the neighboring country, Dominican Republic. The Lake Chad basin area in central Africa has also been affected by cholera since November 2009, with a cross border transmission occurring between the neighboring countries of Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria.
Cases in Papua New Guinea continued to be reported in 2010 and 2011 affecting the provinces of NCD, Gulf, Western, East Sepik, Morobe, Madang and Central Province. Throughout history, populations all over the world have sporadically been affected by devastating outbreaks of cholera. The 1st pandemic, or global epidemic, started in 1817 from its endemic area in South-East Asia and subsequently spread to other parts of the world.
In 1961, the 7th cholera pandemic wave began in Indonesia and spread rapidly to other countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, and finally in 1991 to Latin America, which had been free of cholera for more than a century.
Numerous countries in Asia, Africa, and the Americas still suffer from cholera today. Typically the African region suffers the most from cholera outbreaks; however, there have been numerous large outbreaks in other regions of the world.
Mechanisms of Transport
A person can become infected from two major ways: either drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated food. The food and water become contaminated by coming into contact with the V. Cholerae bacteria by the spread of an infected persons feces. This bacteria can often thrives on copepods found in rivers. It cannot spread from person to person. V. cholera uses a flagella for propulsion and pili to latch onto cells.
Cause of Cholera
Cholera is caused by the consuming of food and water contaminated with the vibrio cholerae bacterium. It is most often found in vegetables grown using contaminated water and raw fish and seafood infected by V. cholerae. This bacteria latches itself into the bowel system and releases a toxin causing diarrhea. The most severe parts of V. cholerae are the O groups. The toxin released is a enterotoxin and it causes cells to extract water and electrolytes from the body and pump it to the intestines causing diarrhea.
Prezi By Aydin Metel, Ben Huls
History of Cholera
During the 19th century, cholera spread across the world from its original reservoir in the Ganges delta in India. Six subsequent pandemics killed millions of people across all continents. The current (seventh) pandemic started in South Asia in 1961, and reached Africa in 1971 and the Americas in 1991. Cholera is now epidemic in many countries.
Cholera has likely been with humans for many centuries. The most notable outbreak was in 1854, when Dr. John Snow did a classic study in London that showed a main source of the disease (resulting in about 500 deaths in 10 days) came from at least one of the major water sources for London residents termed the "Broad Street pump." The pump handle was removed, and the cholera deaths slowed and stopped. The pump is still present as a landmark in London.
Although Dr. Snow did not discover the cause of cholera, he did show how the disease could be spread and how to stop a local outbreak. This was the beginning of modern epidemiologic studies.
V. cholerae was first isolated as the cause of cholera by Filippo Pacini in 1854, but his discovery was not widely known until Robert Koch published a book on cholera. Cholera first appeared in Europe and North America beginning in 1831–1832.
Interesting Facts About Cholera (Video)