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Latin American Revolutions
Transcript of Latin American Revolutions
Revolution in Haiti
Haiti was a French colony with a large slave population.
In 1791, Toussaint L'Overture starts a revolt against French rulers.
What is happening in
France during 1790s?
By 1802, Napoleon has taken over France.
Napoleon sends French army to reconquer Haiti and re-enslave Haitians.
Toussaint L'Overture is captured and imprisoned.
Many of the French soldiers get sick and die of yellow fever.
Toussaint L'Overture's second in command fights against French and kicks them out for good.
Father Miguel Hidalgo y Castillo was upset about how Spanish government treated mestizos and Native Americans in their Mexican colony.
With others, he plotted a rebellion against Spain.
On September 16, 1810, he gave a speech called 'El Grito de Dolores'
He was captured by Spanish forces and executed in 1811.
After Hidalgo's death, Jose Maria Morales led the Mexican rebels.
He was killed by Spanish in 1815.
Agustin de Iturbide was a Spanish military officer who changed sides and fought with the Mexican rebels.
In 1815, Napoleon conquers Spain and attacks Portugal.
King Joao VI flees Portugal and goes to...
(Brazil was Portugal's colony)
King Joao rules the Portuguese empire from Brazil until Napoleon is defeated.
He comes to enjoy Brazil.
After Napoleon is defeated, King Joao returns to Portugal in 1822, but leaves his son, Dom Pedro in charge of Brazil.
King Joao tells Dom Pedro that if Brazilians want independence, to give it to them.
But, King Joao also tells Dom Pedro to make himself the new ruler!
, Portugal granted Brazil it's independence.
How is this different from other revolutions?
Simon Bolivar is called "El Liberador"
Breaks apart in 1828.
A large area was controlled by the Spanish called "United Provinces of La Plata."
Jose de San Martin was an Argentinian creole who fought for the Spanish in Europe.
When he returned to South America, he wanted freedom for Argentina and other countries in South America.
The creoles rebelled against the Spanish viceroy of "La Plata" and Jose de San Martin offered to help.
Bernardo O'Higgins led the revolution against Spain in Chile.
Spanish forces remained strong in Peru.
Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin allied to defeat Spanish armies in Peru.
Jose de San Martin and Bernardo O'Higgins allied together and fought against the Spanish forces in Peru.
Jose de San Martin declares independence for Peru.
After defeat in Peru, the Spanish were quickly kicked out of South America.
Where did Bolivia get its' name?
Causes of the Latin American revolutions:
1. Enlightenment ideas - writings of John Locke, Voltaire, & Jean Rousseau; Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine.
2. Creole discontent at being left out of government jobs.
3. Inspiration of American and French revolutions.
4. Preoccupation of Spain and Portugal in fighting in the Napoleonic wars.
1. New countries independent of European powers.
2. No unity.
- Simon Bolivar dreamed of a united South America.
- This dream failed because of
3. Disruption of trade and destruction of property caused poverty.
- Still a problem today.
4. Power went into the hands of the caudillos.
- Caudillos were dictators, usually with control of the military.
- Many civil wars and revolutions followed.