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Child development

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by

Rachel Cullen

on 15 October 2012

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Transcript of Child development

Harriet, Rachel, Molly, Laura Childhood development Group task! - get into 2 groups

Match the cards to the ages

One category at a time

Once matched discuss answers and show video examples

Discuss outcome measures Outline of the session 6 months
Bears weight of legs, crawls, sits with support
downward and forward parachute response

18months
walks backwards/ carries toys whilst walking/ climbs stairs/ climbs onto chairs


2 1/2 years
Climbs and descends stairs
jumps in place
kicks ball

4 years
hops on one foot for 2m forward
climbs ladder
stands on one foot for 5 seconds
walks heel to toe Gross motor 6 months
offers toys to others
shows distress when the mother leaves
recognises emotions e.g. crying if a sibling cries, although it does not mean they are feeling the emotion

18 months
solitary play, but prefer to be near a familiar adult/sibling
eager to be independent
may become easily frustrated with temper tantrums
are aware others are fearful for them when they climb on furniture

2 1/2 years
play more with other children, but may not share toys
emotionally very dependent on adult
often frustrated as unable to express themselves, half of 2 year old children have a tantrum on a daily basis


4 years
Likes to be with other children and can show sensitivity
show a sense of humour
likes to be independent
strong self willed Social and Emotional Development 6 months -
Double syllable sounds such as 'mama' and 'dada'.
Laughs in play.
Screams with annoyance.

18 months -
Uses many intelligible words. Repeats an adult's last word. Jabbering established.

2 1/2 years -
Talks to self continuously. Speaks over two hundred words, and accumulate new words very rapidly.

4 years -
Many infantile substitutions in speech. Uses correct grammar most of the time. Enjoy counting up to twenty by repetition. Birth to 2 years = Sensorimotor Stage
Learn about their environment through sensation and movement. Object permanence by the end of this stage.

at 6 months= repetition of actions on external objects e.g. bangs a toy to make a noise

2-4 years = Unable to understand things from another person viewpoint (egocentric)

2 to 7 years= Preoperational Stage
Children learn from their experiences from real objects in their immediate environment
Children will not be able to conserve mass, volume or number

Animism = from 4 years
believes all objects have a consciousness, e.g. when a child smacks a chair Theories of Child Development
Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development • Orthopedic, Respiratory, Musculoskeletal assessment and treatment

•Support for children with special needs

•Burns and plastics management

•Oncology support

•Home assessment

•School assessment

•Wheelchair advice and services

•Neonatal, perinatal and postnatal advice and support

•Milestone assessments

•Weight management – underweight and overweight

•Psychological assessments

•Assist with toileting dysfunction

•Health care advice and promotion to adults and children

•Help with social integration in the community and schools

•Independent prescribers • Highlight the unique skills that pediatric Occupational therapy and Physiotherapists have.

• Give a clear explanation of how these skills would feed into programmes and services that could be integrated into Sure Start.

•How these skills are unique and how it would be more economical and suitable to employ our professions as oppose to another person.

•Definitions of how we would audit ourselves to ensure the service we would provide are effective and efficient.

•We are professionals supported by professional bodies and therefore our services are more expert than the educated lay person. Summary – how would this feed into the business plan? Speech development What can we offer as PTs and OTs? Fine Motor 6 months -
Reaches out to grasp, transfers objects from hand to hand and hand to mouth, fixes on small objects (e.g. raisin on coloured sheet), follows falling objects

18 months -
Can pick up small objects e.g. smarties using pincer grip, scribbles with their preferred hand, turns pages of a book, builds tower of bricks 2-3 high

2 1/2 years -
Child can pick up 'hundreds and thousands' accurately and quickly, can draw one to two vertical lines at least 2 cm long, builds brick towers 8 bricks high

4 years -
Able to copy a cross within a circle, initiates bridge of three bricks, able to draw a stick man with three parts Outcome
Shows ability in session OR parent reports Hx of child completing task
Can use GMFS or Peabody developmental motor scale.
Many others both can be costly! Interrelation between thought and language
when small children are playing they keep up a running commentary, as they develop this external monologue is internalised as thought

Zone of proximal development
each child has a 'zone of development', which is achievable only with the help and encouragement of an adult or more competent peers

Importance of play

Social interactions

Cultural Context Vygotsky

First 5 years are the most important in the child's development

Mother child relationship has a huge influence on child development

Separation from the mother is a major cause of psychological trauma (long-lasting effects)

6 months to 3 years child MUST form an attachment to one person Bowlby
Theory of maternal Deprivation and Attachment Resources available on BB Questionnaire for parents - what to look for
0-12months or 1-4 years

Outcome measures - Alberta Infant motor scale
GMFS

Link to Department of Health 'Framework for Assessment of Children in Need and their Families' (see Appendix 2)

Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage 2008 Trust versus Mistrust = Birth to 1 year

Need to learn to trust others, have confidence and security in the world around them, unsuccessful completion of this stage may result in anxiety and excessive mistrust in the world around them

Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt= 1- to 3 years

Begin to assert independence, if criticized or overally controlled they may feel inadequate in their ability to survive and may lack self-esteem

Initiative versus guilt = 3-6 years

begin to plan activities, create games with others, if this is stifled through criticism and control they develop sense of guilt or feel like a nuisance to others, remain followers Erickson Theory of Psychosocial Development
• Perform questionnaires’/outcome measures prior to treatment and then after appropriate period of treatment.

• This could even be performed by another member of AHP in order to prevent bias. Outcome measures – how will we measure our effectiveness?




Non-standardised:
Use of toys/games to assess fine & gross motor skill development - e.g blocks, threading, puzzles, drawing, stairs, tricycle etc.
Observation & discussion with parent of social interaction, play and self-care skills. Assessment of child development Standardised: Movement ABC Sensory profile Beery VMI
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