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The Making of an Expert
Transcript of The Making of an Expert
K. Anders EricssonMichael J. PrietulaEdward T. Cokely
What is an expert?
What do you need to be an expert?
Studying with devoted teachers.
Playing a game
You only have one chance to make a shot from any given location.
If you were allowed to take five to ten shots from the exact same location --> more feedback, correct mistakes, improve.
Involves two kinds of learning: improving the skills you already have and extending the reach and range of your skills.
Two Hungarian educators challenge the popular assumption that women don´t succeed in areas requiring spatial thinking, such as chess.
The Making of an Expert
By: María Andrea Mora, Emmanuel Jacqmin
and Juliana Pérez.
- No correlation between IQ and expert performance.
- Experts are always made, not born.
The development of genuine expertise requires struggle, sacrifice, honest, pain, patience and time. There are no shortcuts.
You need a particular kind of practice to develop expertise.
It entails specific efforts to do something you can’t do well—or even at all.
When most people practice, they focus on the things they already know how to do --> Work at what you can't do.
“While I am practicing I am also trying to develop my powers of concentration. I never just walk up and hit the ball.”
Genuine experts not only practice deliberately but also think deliberately. Golfer Ben Hogan.
A professor to his violinist student:
"If you practice with your fingers, no amount is enough. If you practice with your head, two hours is plenty.’”
Neglect Deliberate Practice
Experts who reach a high level of performance often find themselves responding by intuition to specific situations.
leads to difficulties when they deal with atypical cases, because they’ve lost the ability to analyze a situation.
Take the Time You Need
Research shows that: even the most gifted performers need a minimum of ten years (or 10,000 hours) of intense training before they win international competitions.
Not only do you have to be prepared to invest time in becoming an expert, but you have to start early—at least in some fields.
FIND COACHES AND MENTORS
"If we analyze the development of the well-known artists, we see that in almost every case the success of their entire career was dependent on the quality of their practicing"
Different kinds of teachers
ALL TOP PERFORMERS
EXPERTS COACHES MAKE A DIFFERENCE
Accelerate learning process
Give constructive feedback
Identify aspects of a performance that will be need to improve at a next level of skill.
WHAT DOES REAL EXPERTS SEEK IN A COACH?
Constructive feedback even if it is painful
Skilled to identify when a coach is not working.
Pick unsentimental coaches
Know when a coach is no longer needed.
"Like good parents who encourage their children to leave the nest, good coaches help their students learn how to rely on an inner coach"