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Transcript of Chapter 19
Instead of the long fibers found in meat & poultry, fish have shorter fibers that are arranged in layers
Layers are separated by thin sheets of connective tissue
This tissue turns into gelatin when cooked, making it more tender
Composition of Meat & Poultry
Meat & poultry have very long, thin muscle cells
As an animal ages, the fibers thicken
Fibers are also tougher if the animal gets a lot of exercise
The cut also plays a role in tenderness of meat
Some have more connective tissues than others
Collagen: thin, white, or transparent connective tissue
When simmered, collagen softens & turns into gelatin
Elastin: yellowish, very tough connective tissue
Tenderizing methods include pounding, cutting, or grinding
Chapter 19: Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Shellfish
Food for Today
Looking at Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Shellfish
Meat: beef, lamb, pork, veal
Poultry: chicken, turkey, duck, goose
Fish & Shellfish: dozens of types (salmon, perch, lobsters, clams)
Within each category different cuts are available
Nutrition of Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Shellfish
Fat & Cholesterol Content
All animal muscle contains about the same amount of cholesterol per ounce.
Organ meats have more.
Fat content varies:
most fish is low in fat
turkey breast is low in fat
10 grams of fat or less in a 3.5 ounce serving is considered lean
Types of fat varies:
Beef is high in saturated fat
Pork has ,ore polyunsaturated
Visible fat: skin or marbling
Fat content can also have an effect on tenderness
More marbling = more tender
Fat gives flavor & helps keep juices in
Tender cuts are often more expensive than less tender cuts.
Knowing how to cook less tender cuts can help you save money.
Boneless meat and poultry is generally more expensive than cuts sold with the bone
Save money by removing the bone yourself.
Inspection & Grading
Meat is inspected by the USDA before it can be sold; a vegetable dye inspection stamp is placed on the meat ( consumer usually doesn't see this)
Meat is graded according to standards: amount of marbling, age of animal, & texture & appearance of meat
Prime:highest & most expensive grade; well-marbled; tender; flavorful
Choice: most common grade sold in supermarkets; less marbling; still tender & flavorful
Select: contains least amount of marbling; least expensive; often sold as store brand
Types of Meat
Beef: meat from cattle over one year old; has a hearty flavor; bright red flesh; fat is firm w/white or yellowish color
Veal: meat from very young calves (1 - 3 months); mild flavor; pink color; very little fat;
Lamb: mild but unique flavor; bright pink-red color; white, brittle fat
Pork: mild flavor; grayish-pink; white, soft fat
Ham, bacon, sausage, lunch meat
Treating meat to extend its shelf life & to create distinctive flavor
Curing: meat is soaked in solution of salt, sugar, nitrate, ascorbic acid, & water (can also be injected into the meat)
Drying, salting, & smoking are other methods of processing
Types & Market Forms of Poultry
Meat requires cold storage.
Ground meat & organ meats can be stored in the refrigerator 1 - 2 days.
Other fresh meat will keep for 3 - 5 days in the refrigerator.
Charts on p. 208 - 209 break down how long items may be stored in the freezer.
Ground meat: made from trimmings, attached to bone
By law, ground beef cannot have more than 30% fat by weight
Lean is available, but at a higher cost
Liver: high in nutrients; tender; pronounced flavor
Lamb & Veal Kidneys: tender; mild flavor (beef & pork are less tender & have strong flavor)
Chitterlings: intestines of pigs; thoroughly cleaned & commonly sold whole
Light & dark meat
Light is leaner & milder in flavor
Tenderness & cooking methods are determined by the age of the bird.
Broiler-fryer: most tender & most common, cooked w/almost any method
Roaster: raised to be roasted whole; larger; older; yield more meat
Rock Cornish Game Hens: young, small chickens of special breed; less meat in relation to size; one hen = one serving
Capon: castrated roosters; under 10 months; flavorful; best roasted
Chicken can be purchased in various forms (whole, cut up, or in packages of specific parts)
Poultry labeled "fresh" has never been chilled below 26 degrees F.
If "hard-chilled," between 0 degrees & 26 degrees F
"Frozen" = chilled below 0 degrees F
Larger than chicken; have stronger flavor
Light meat is leaner & more tender than dark meat
Different types & sizes available:
Beltsville or fryer-roaster: smallest; average weight of 5 - 9 lbs; not always available
Hens: females; weigh 8 - 16 lbs
Toms: males; weigh up to 24 lbs
Mollusks: soft bodies covered by @ least one shell
Clams: two-hinged shells w/edible flesh inside; various sizes; sold live (in shell) or shucked (removed from shell)
Mussels: thin, oblong shell; length varies from 1 1/2 in - 6 in; edible flesh not as tender as oysters or clams; sold live in shell
Oysters: rough, hard, gray shell; different sizes; flesh varies in color, flavor, & texture; sold live or shucked
Scallops: fan-shaped shells; bay scallops = 1/2 in & are sweet & tender; sea scallops are larger & not as tender
Squid (calamari): sold fresh; popular in Asia & Mediterranean; gaining popularity in US
Crustaceans: have long bodies w/jointed limbs, covered w/shells
Crabs: round shell w/eight legs & two claws; different varieties; sold live, cooked, or frozen; crab meat also available refrigerated, frozen, or canned
Crayfish: freshwater; resemble small lobsters; sold whole, live, or cooked
Lobsters: long jointed body w/four pairs of legs & two large claws; average weight is 1 1/4 lb - 2 1/4 lb; fresh sold live
Shrimp: vary in size & color; sold frozen or previously frozen & thawed; sold raw, w/or w/o shell, as well as cooked
Inspection & Grading
Done by the USDA & in the same way as meat
Grade A is most commonly found in supermarkets
Indicates that poultry is practically free of defects, has a good shape & appearance, & is meaty
Inspection & Grading
Voluntary inspection & grading process carried out by FDA & National Marine Fisheries Service of US Dept. of Commerce
Focuses on on fish processing & safety of consumers
Types & Market Forms of Fish & Shellfish
Types of Fish:
Dozens of varieties -
Mild & tender: catfish, cod, flounder, halibut, perch, pike, pollock, snapper, trout, whitefish
Pronounced & firm: bluefish, mackerel, salmon, swordfish, tuna
Ducks & Geese
All dark meat; flavorful, but high in fat
Chicken or turkey
Pay attention to labeling:
If it states "ground turkey breast" or "ground chicken," both the flesh & skin were used (skin is high in saturated fat)
Look for "ground turkey breast meat" or "ground chicken meat."
Often used as a substitution to ground beef, but is drier and less flavorful
Liquids & seasonings must be used
Edible poultry organs
Usually included in a packet sold w/a whole bird
Include liver, gizzard (stomach), & heart
Gizzards & livers are also sold separately
Processed using the same method as other meats
Often processed into sausages
Buying & Storing Poultry
When buying, look for plump, meaty birds w/smooth & soft skin
Color varies from white to yellow depending on food eaten by bird (avoid if bruised)
1 - 2 days in the refrigerator; for info. on freezing, see p. 208 - 209
Drawn: whole fish w/scales, gills, & internal organs removed
Dressed: drawn w/head, tail, & fins removed
Fillets: sides of fish cut lengthwise away from bones & backbone
Steaks: cross sections cut from large, dressed fish
Dried, pickled, smoked, or cured
Buy from reliable source
When buying fresh, look for the following: fish should be set on ice (not piled); it should have shiny skin, clear eyes, & bright pink or red gills; should not smell "fishy"