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Abdullah Almotreb

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Nano-dentistry

Application of Nano-Technology in Dentistry; Past, Present and Future

It is a branch of technology that deals with the manufacture of objects with dimensions of less than 100 nanometres and the manipulation of individual molecules and atoms using nanobots.


the revolutionary development of Nano-technology has become the most highly energized discipline in science and technology
Therapeutic products were grouped as:

-cancer treatment
-cardiac/vascular disorders
-inflammatory/immune disorders
- hepatitis
-(other) infectious diseases
-endocrine/exocrine disorders
-degenerative disorders

Over the year, the development of Nano-dentistry will allow nearly perfect oral health by the use of Nano-materials and biotechnologies.

Producing functional materials and strictures in the range of ( 0.1 to 100 nanometers)

Nano-technology and Cancer
Nano-technology appears balanced to provide devices, capable of
sensitive and specific
anatomic, molecular and biologic imaging;
selective therapy of tumors
; and
low toxicity
, resulting in a significant improvement over the current standard of care
Nano-technology will change dentistry, healthcare, and human life more intensely than many developments of the past. As with all technologies
Diabetes mellitus
As the invasive multiple injections of precisely calculated amounts of insulin present a significant deterioration of the life quality, So Nano-medical approaches has focused on oral or inhalative insuline.
Also Nanomedicine aims to provide novel tools for:
-diagnosis therapy
-point-of-care management of patients
-prevention of the disease.

The basic concept behind the use of nanotechnology-based systems for antiretroviral drug delivery is related with the modulation of pharmacokinetics(what the body does to the drug) of incorporated molecules.
Providing higher and prolonged drug levels in known reservoir sites for HIV
In prevention-based Nanosystems as adjuvants(helping) in the formulation of anti HIV vaccines.

Alzheimer's disease
-It is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia among people over the age of 65 years.
-Generally, pharmaceuticals, including most small molecules, do not cross the blood-brain barrier BBB.
-Nonmedical approaches are overcoming the limitations inherent to BBB passage by:

types of
lipidic, polymeric, inorganic, and other types of Nano-particles
(NPs) for controlled drug delivery.

fillers are in the 1–100 nm range
Dental Implants
The natural bone surface has a roughness of Approximately 100 nm.

Roughing the implant surface at the Nano- scale level is important the cellular response that occurs in the tissue.

Nano-structured hydroxyapatite coatings for implant:

promotes bone formation around implant.

increases Osteo-blasts function such as adhesion proliferation and mineralization.

Orthodontic Nano-robots can directly :
1) Manipulate all of the periodontal tissues.
2) They can correct, rotate, or vertically reposition the teeth within a few hours in a pain-free manner.

A new stainless-steel wire that uses Nano-technology is being studied that combines ultra-high strength with good deformability, corrosion resistance, and surface finish.

Better-quality health,

Better use of natural resources,

and Reduced environmental pollution
Current work is focused on the recent developments, particularly of Nano-particles and Nano-tubes for periodontal management, the materials developed from such as the hollow Nano-spheres, core shell structures, Nano-composites, Nano-porous materials, and Nano-membranes will play a growing role in materials development for the dental industry
Nano-medicine needs to overcome the challenges for its application, to improve the understanding of pathophysiologic basis of disease.

bring more sophisticated diagnostic opportunities, and yield more effective therapies and preventive properties.
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
Course director:
Ali Al Refai.

Dr. Abdullah Mohamed Alsoghier

Students names:

Abdullah Almotreb,
Mohammad Aldhafyan,
Omar Alshehri,
Ahmad Albakri,
Yasser Alrayes,

Dr. Richard Phillips Feynman

In December 29, 1959

"There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom"
It’s not limited to one thing or even to a small group of things; it can be used for many different things in any field you can think of
Impression materials
Nano-fillers are integrated in vinylpolysiloxans, producing a unique edition of siloxane impression materials.

The advantages of this integration :
Better flow.
Improved hydrophilic properties.
fewer voids at the margin .
Better model pouring enhanced detail precision

observing, controlling, and treating the biological systems of the human body at the molecular level using Nano-structures and Nano-devices.

Two types
Nano-metric particles which are essentially on dispersed non-aggregated
Most common
Non-agglomerated particles of silica.
Nano-clusters from silica sols only
To develop a dental composite material that had the:
mechanical strength,
wear resistance (wear by breaking off individual primary particles rather than plucking out the larger secondary particle from the resin),
fracture resistance,
more polishing surface,
and strong surface morphology after toothbrush abrasion and increase the esthetic .
Hypersensitivity cure
Painless anesthesia
Surgical therapy
Gene therapy
Angiogenesis inhibitors
Laser therapy
Different kinds of Nano-particles suitable for drug and gene delivery, probing DNA structures, etc., exist. They include liposomes, polymeric Nano-paticles (Nano-spheres and Nano-capsules, solid lipid particles, Nano-crystals, polymer therapeutics such as dendrimers, fullerenes and inorganic Nano-particles.
Dendritic polymeric Nano- devices can detect cancer cells, identify cancer signature, and provide targeted delivery of anti-cancer therapeutics
Carbon Nano-tubes scan down DNA, and look for
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Nano-wires having the unique properties of selectivity and specificity, can be designed to sense molecular markers of malignant cells
semiconductors that can emit light in all colors, applied, particularly in cancer imaging studies, have enough surface area to combine therapeutic agents and tumor specific modalities for the combined results of drug delivery, imaging and tissue engineering
Have Size-tuned optical property which helps in absorbing and scattering light from the visible to the near infra-red region
Saliva meets the demands for inexpensive, noninvasive and easy-to-use diagnostic medium containing proteomic and genomic markers for molecular disease identification
sub-100 nm
Malignancy and other diseases cause elevated exosomes secretion and tumor-antigene enrichment of exosomes associated with cancer cells
Is it safe..!!?
The chemical and physiochemical properties of nonoparticles, which enable them to overcome the obstacles that traditional medications face, can also results in unique toxicities from these particles.
Their zeta potential, size, and solubility will all affect the way in which they are cleared from the body, how they will be transported to the diseased tissue, as well as the reactivity of Nano-particle surface and cytotoxicity.
Disruption of vital cellular functions
Toxicity of Nano-materials is not inevitable can be managed through carful design with attention to the particle’s size, shape, surface area, charge, state of aggregation, crystallinity, and potential to generate reactive oxygen species.

New polymeric materials have lower toxicity

Degrade into products which are biocompatible and can easily be cleared from the system .

In the FUTURE..
Thanks for your attention
Promising Nanodiagnostic alternatives are already in development:
quantum dots, metallic nanostructures, other nanoparticles, and their integration with lab-on-a-chip technologies.
The current advances tests include:
1- highly sensitive nanoparticle tests.
2-multiplexed homogeneous and heterogeneous
3-lab-on-a-chip platforms.

1) smaller sample volumes.
2) reduced waste production due to miniaturization.
3) short analysis time.

Diagnostics For Infectious Diseases
Applications in drug delivery
The pathophysiological condition and anatomical changes of diseased or inflamed tissues offers many advantages for the delivery of various Nano-technological products.
Drug loading onto Nano-particles modifies cell and tissue distribution and leads to a more selective delivery of biologically active compounds to improve drug efficacy and reduces drug toxicity.

The final aim of pharmaceutical research is the delivery of any drug at the right time in a safe and reproducible manner to a specific target at the required level all of which alters, destroy, or reduce absorption of nearly all macromolecules, thus reducing their bioavailability. As a result, millions of diabetics worldwide have to self-administered insulin injections daily, provoking a high percentage of negligence in this treatment.

The advantage Nano-technology in the dentistry:

used to manipulate the structure of materials to improve the electrical chemical and mechanical and optical properties

New families of “smart” Nano-phase( grain size less than 100 nm) coatings the implant will enhance :
Bone integration and promote better device fixation.
Selectively encourage hard tissue growth on implant while discouraging the format of soft-tissue growth that can result in implant failure.

Dentin hypersensitivity may be caused by changes in pressure Transmitted hydrodynamically to the pulp.

This is based on the fact that hypersensitive teeth have eight times higher surface density of dentinal tubules and tubules with diameters twice as large as Non sensitive teeth.  

Dental Nano- robots could selectively and precisely occlude selected tubules in minutes, using native logical materials, offering patients a quick and permanent cure.

nanorobot through dentinal tubules
To induce local anesthesia:

colloidal suspension containing millions of active analgesic micrometer sized dental Nano- robot particles on the patient's gingiva after contacting the surface of the crown or mucosa, the ambulatory Nano- robots reach the dentin by passing into the gingival sulcus and passing painlessly through the lamina propria.

On reaching the dentin the Nano- robots enter the dentinal tubule holes 1-4 microns in diameter and proceed towards the pulp, guided by combination of chemical gradient

“Nobody ever figures out what life is all about, and it doesn't matter. Explore the world. Nearly everything is really interesting if you go into it deeply enough.”
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