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The French Revolution

World History

Aleksandra Kecman

on 15 December 2014

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Transcript of The French Revolution

23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793
Marie Antoinette
Monday, July 14, 1789
"I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge."
~ Louis XVI
2/11/1755 - 16/10/1793
“In a few days, I will have them all guillotined in Paris.”
~ Jean-Paul Marat
(Politician at the time of the French Revolution)
Aleksandra Kecman
I was a queen, and you took away my crown; a wife, and you killed my husband; a mother, and you deprived me of my children. My blood alone remains: take it, but do not make me suffer long.
~ Marie Antoinette
Garfield Newman, "Legacy: The West and the World" Toronto, Ontario: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Pages 168-205.
Josh Brooman, "Revolution in France" Harlow, Essex: Longman Group, 1992. All pages.
Kate Riggs, "The French Revolution" Mankato, Minnesota: Creative Eduction, 2010. Pages 1-4, 15, 20,23
Sean Connolly, "The French Revolution" Chicago, Illinois: Heinemann Library, 2003. Pages 4-44.

abouteducation, "History of the French Revolution" Published 2011, accessed: December 8. Available from: http://europeanhistory.about.com/od/thefrenchrevolution/a/hfrcontents.htm
History.com Staff, "French Revolution" Published: 2009, accessed: December 8. Available from: http://www.history.com/topics/french-revolution
Sparknotes, "The French Revolution (1789–1799)" Published: 2005, accessed: December 4. Available from: http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/frenchrev/context.html

Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, "French Revolution" Encyclopedia Britannica. Updated November 21, 2014, accessed December 2. Available from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/219315/French-Revolution
World Book Encyclopedia, " World Book F-7" Chicago, Illinois. World Book Inc. 2010.

~All images taken from Google Images and or the websites above.
Causes of the French Revolution
The main cause of the French Revolution was
social inequality

All of France’s twenty-eight million people were divided into
three estates
In 1789, France was one of Europe's
It had a political system of kings and nobles now called the
Ancien Regime
In the decades to come, France would be governed as a republic, constitutional monarchy, and two different empires
First Estate:
About 130,000 people or <1% of the total population

Made up of the
: bishops, monks, nuns, parish priests

Had their own law courts and did not have to pay certain taxes
Third estate
About 27,000,000 people or 97%

Made up of
peasants, working class and middle class/bourgeoisie
i.e lawyers, doctors, businessmen, merchants, soldiers, craftsmen, shopkeepers etc.

No privileges and all taxes.
Second Estate
Between 120,000 and 350,000 people or <2%

Made up of the

Had the right to carry a sword, got special treatment in law courts, did not have to pay certain taxes, did not have to do military service

During the
Middle Ages

The clergy ran the education and religion of the nation
Nobles were brave knights fighting for France at wartime
However during the 18 century this was no longer the case and the third estate believed the system was
European middle class, it refers to townspeople, who were neither nobles nor peasants
Along with the social inequality came tremendous
two main reasons

I. There was a
food shortage
in France due to bad crops and weather

II. France’s
financial contribution
to the Seven Years War, the American Revolution as well as the kings own
extravagant spending
lead to the third estate being ripe for revolt
France's financial situation and unjust political system led to revolt of the third estate when coupled with:
I. Inspiration from other revolutions
II. Enlightenment idea's

Lacked strength in personality and decisiveness
Was not able to handle France's problems
Abused his power
Loved hunting and was an avid locksmith
Captured on suspicions of treason
Suspended from his power
He was found guilty of treason and guillotined at 38 years old
Archduchess of Austria
Hated by the French, in the commoners’ eyes, the primary symbol of the French royalty’s extravagance and excess
Extravagant and outgoing personality
Was taken with her family to the Tuileries
Nicknamed "Madame Veto" for coaxing her husband to use his 'veto power'
Nicknamed "Madame Deficit" for her outrageous spending
Executed on the guillotine at the age of 37
Assembly of Notables
Louis XVI turned to
for a way to solve the crisis

Louis XVI and Calonne decided to implement a
new tax
on land

They gathered
of the leading nobles and clergymen to discuss and approve the new tax. This was called the “
Assembly of Notables

The Assembly of Notables denied the tax and insisted that only the
Estates General
had that much power.
the estates general
The Estates General met on for the first time in
175 years
at the Palace of Versailles
When Louis XVI
the National Assembly out of the Palace of Versailles, they fled to a nearby
Tennis Court

There they declared the famous
Tennis Court Oath
stating that they would carry on the meeting until they
changed the way France was governed

February 22, 1787
May 5, 1789
Louis reluctantly agreed to the third estates demand to
their numbers

Each of the three estates was asked to reconvene in
separate hallways
and place their votes
The third estate did not agree with this however, because in a separate vote they could be outnumbered, so they asked the nobles and clergy to take part in a single

‘National Assembly’
June 19 1789
Tennis Court Oath
The National Assembly started searching for weapons to defend themselves against the kings troops, thus the storming of Bastille
the Great Fear
Violence soon spread to the countryside, and rumours spread that the nobles were hoarding grain

Storming of the Bastille
June 14 1789
Bastille was a very old, very hated prison by the Parisians because it is where any people who got sealed letters were sent
Peasants responded by forming gangs and refusing to pay their feudal dues
Summer of 1789

On August 4, nobles
gave up their feudal rights
, thus abolishing the feudal order and the Ancien Regime

Three weeks later, the National Assembly issued the “
Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen

August Decrees
The women’s march
5 October 1789
Upon hearing that Louis XVI
would not pass
the “Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen” as law and a
about Marie Antoinette
hoarding grain
thousands of women
gathered armed with knives, sticks, and rifles, and demanded that the price of bread be lowered and the extra soldiers deemed unnecessary
Louis formulated a plan to escape France with Marie Antoinette and his children
They attempted to escape but they were recognized, arrested, and sent back to Paris
Flight to Varennes
June 21, 1791 at midnight
Upon hearing the news Emperor Leopold II and the
King of Prussia
issued the
Declaration of Pillnitz

Rumors spread like wildfire, but rather than fear them, the French citizens were
to go to war
Road to War
27 August 1791
France declared war on Austria and hoped for a quick win

France lost causing suspicion of traitors to grow, especially at the kings palace

This was worsened when the Brunswick Manifesto was issued and the Assembly ordered all citizens to have guns for protection
April 20, 1792
20,000 citizens attacked the palace on a quest to dethrone the king

Louis and his family were imprisoned and France was declared a republic

Louis was then tried, convicted of high treason and sentenced to death
The storming of Tuileries
August 10, 1792
Meanwhile food prices were soaring causing the government to print more money- called assignats- making it worth much less

Even farmers would not sell their bread because of the inflation, leading the

to raid shops and food stores

Inflation and Shortages
Sans Culottes

The name given to the people who overthrew the king

They were republicans who hated the monarchy and nobility

Used tu not vous, comrade or citizen instead of mister or madam etc. and believed everyone should have equal rights, such as voting
The Sans Culottes

Millions were shocked over the news of Louis XVI's execution and many of them joined forces with Austria and Prussia

France, eager to fight what they called “tyrants,” led a coalition to attack them and declared war on Holland, Britain, and Spain

Austrian forces beat the French in a series of battles, making France look on the edge of defeat
The War Spreads
The Reign of Terror
The Law of Suspects
The Law of Suspects was passed and citizens could hand in a list with anyone they suspected to go against the government

Around half the sentences they passed were
death sentences

The Guillotine
Death sentences were carried through via the
as a more humane, quick, and painless way to execute people

During the Reign of Terror, around
suspects were executed, and among the first were Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
Results of the Reign of Terror
The Committee of Public Safety eventually reached most of it goals

However, the Committee had become a twelve man dictatorship, and to top it off approximately 40,000 people had already been executed or died in prison
Renaming of the Calendar
While France was broke and fighting several wars, the Committee of Public Safety changed
measurements of time
thinking that the traditional measurements were irrational and religious

They renamed all the months and decided each day would have ten hours and each hour one hundred minutes
Results of the Reign of Terror Continued
On Thermidor 9 year 2 (July 27 1795) the National Convention decided to get rid of Maximilien Robespierre, along with his supporters, thus ending the Reign of Terror
Three Main problems facing France
A third problem struck when France ordered an additional 300,000 men to join the army

This increased tensions in France between two groups of politicians in the newly renamed National Convention:
the Girondins and the Jacobins
The Jacobins blamed the Girondins for the increase of food prices and the losses on the battlefield

They then broke into the Convention and expelled the Girondins, triggering a series of rebellions

Backed by the newly approved Constitution of 1793, Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety began conscripting French soldiers and implementing laws to stabilize the economy
The Girondins were part of the Jacobins but then later separated

The Girondins were a more moderate thinking group and were led by Jacques Pierre Brissot

The Girondins are known for their opposite thinking from the Jacobins

The Girondins wanted to engage in war to bring the nation together and gain political power

They supported the idea of having a war against Austria
The Jacobins were a radical thinking group

The Jacobins were led by Robespierre, Danton, Desmoulins and Marat

Many people of the bourgeoise class were members of the club

Anyone could join the club, including foreigners

The Jacobins did not want to engage in war
The way they ran the government for the next twelve months was known as the
Reign of Terror
Faced with many national crises the National Convention created an emergency group called the
Committee of Public Safety
September of 1793

The era following the ousting of Robespierre was known as the
Thermidorian Reaction
, leading to the new
Constitution of 1795
and a significantly more conservative National Convention
Between 1795-1799, after the travesties of the Reign of Terror, the French were governed by five men called the

It was not until
Napoleon Bonaparte
, a young army general, took over the government that there was a positive change to the government

He led a
against the Directory in 1799, eventually stepping up and naming himself “
first consul
”—effectively, the leader of France, granting him unlimited executive power under yet another constitution
I. What did the Second Estate comprise?
(A) The clergy
(B) The bourgeoisie
(C) The peasantry
(D) The nobility

II. What did the Tennis Court Oath establish?
(A) That no one would be Louis XVI’s doubles partner
(B) That the Third Estate would accept the tax burden in return for freedom from feudal contracts
(C) That the National Assembly would not dissolve until they had created a constitution
(D) That France would no longer support the Catholic Church

III. France celebrates July 14 as a holiday because it is the anniversary of:
(A) The storming of the Bastille
(B) The Tennis Court Oath
(C) The beginning of the First French Republic
(D) The death of Robespierre

IV. What was the main reason that several thousand women marched on Versailles in October 1789?
(A) Bread shortages in Paris
(B) Universal suffrage for men and women
(C) An influenza outbreak
(D) An exhibition of Marie-Antoinette’s fashions

V. Which period was known as the Great Fear?
(A) 1786–1789, when it was clear that France’s economic situation was dire
(B) The summer of 1789, when peasants around the French countryside revolted against their feudal landlords
(C) 1793–1794, when Robespierre systematically killed more than 15,000 alleged counter revolutionary activists
(D) 1797–1799, when the corrupt Directory ruled dictatorially
Legacy of the Revolution
The abolition of the French monarchy was the immediate result of the Revolution
It was also the reason feudal privileges were destroyed

A series of revolutionary laws ensured wealth and property were more evenly distributed
Other revolutionary reforms include:
abolishing imprisonment for debt
introducing the metric system
establishing a national education system

The three main ideals of the French Revolution- Liberty, Equality, and Brotherhood- have inspired freedom-seekers for centuries
Dozens of countries have adopted France's tricolour
Full transcript